This great work and the Preface to Cesar are important texts that I translate here complete with Sixteenth Century warts and all. Hopefully I haven’t added any more small blemishes to that antique collection; please persevere. These epistles bear a similar relationship to the Nostradamus Quatrains overall as that which any whole-hexagram commentary bears to its selected line in the ancient Chinese Book of Changes, the I Ching. The former may reveal the backgrounds to the eccentric wordings of the latter but truly the thrust is in the lines/in the quatrains.  

The first time I read through the Epistle to the King, I registered my reaction something like this:

“The cognitive capacity to sensitively track multiple linguistic connectivities through a complexity of occulted contexts … is considered very important to any full understanding of any work, especially by logical philosophers … although sections of this text
may be thought to be bordering on the ridiculous”

Well, I’m not a logical philosopher so I persevered and worked straight through the translation in one pleasurable sitting, off-the-cuff and intuitively, with fine etymological and lexicographic sources to hand (including the excellent French information portal CNRTL) so as to light my path. Along that trail it became a matter of unstringing Michel’s lengthy lines of ambiguous intent in which phrasal agreement tends to give way to sheer proximity effect. Please accept my hesitant offering: I hope that the study of Nostradamus may engage and repay you the more for it.

THEME CHEAT: “To God the glory to conceal a thing, And to kings the honour to search a matter out” Proverbs 25:2

TEXT: To check the original text I recommend Mario Gregorio’s welcoming webpage


on his outstandingly utile website. It carries a different English translation to my own.

CONTEXT: The following first appeared in public together with Centuries VIII, IX and X. If today, by great good fortune, we have all of the original quatrains by Nostredame then less than a thousand were published despite Michel’s “coming down to a miliade” remark in this the second of his two accompanying epistles.

Epistle to Henry II
King of France Second
composed March 14th, 1557



‘Victory’ is the buzzword here. The Centuries state that someone who is referred to as a kind of ‘king’ and who rises above the final affronts at End Time will want no greater title than ‘victor’ for his epithet.

Sun worship in Rome led to all their gods having some solar attributes and was a kind of emerging monotheism celebrated by the feast of Sol Victus (the Sun unconquered) later to become Christmas. Yet ‘victus’ could not only mean ‘ever victorious’ but also ‘a manner of living’. Of course, to a Christian the answer as to who will be victorious lies in Revelation 2:26. “To the victor, who keeps to my ways until the end, I will give authority over the nations” whereas to a historian it was likely HRE Charles V, Plus Oultre, who happily retired a battery of grand titles. Consider for a moment,

Quatrain VI 70

1557 Lyon Du Rosne,

Au chef du monde le grand Chyren sera
Plus oultre apres aymé, craint, redoubté:
Son bruit & loz les cieulx surpassera,
Et du seul tiltre victeur fort  contenté.

The great Chyren will be foremost in the world,
Above and beyond previous fear-mongering and fortressing:
His favourable responses rise higher than the heavens,
And with the sole title of victor he is most satisfied.

Is this ‘Chyren’ the missing ‘King First’ implied by this dedication? Well, maybe, but actually from amongst the End Time cast who populate the Centuries, the ground-breaking ‘Ogmion’ (‘Ogmius’ in a 1559 presage) is the only future world-changer directly referred to in this Epistle.

It has been said that a great clue that this letter was not actually intended for King Henry II of France would be if the chronology of facts and figures were to prove as jumbled as in all of the quatrains of the Centuries. It can certainly seem that way but most will see a truer chronology of events in it. And a ruling by the newly-invested Henry II to those bishops empowered in local judicial enforcement was for them to be less obstructive over the printing-publishing of Nostradame’s almanacs. In the periodicals of presage for 1557 we find this unnumbered quatrain:

Roy salué Victeur, Impereateur.
La foy faussée, le Royal fait congnu.
Sang Mathien, Roy fait supereatur.
La gent superbe, humble par pleurs venu.

Line 3, ‘Sang Mathien’ implies Memnon, slain brother to Emathion, whose mother Eos or Dawn
“pale-faced ushered in a mourning day, and the victor flinched at this lesson of his labour  …” (Seneca the Younger from Euripedes)

King hailed Victor, Imperator.
The faith askew, the Royal act

Blood of Emathion, King made victorious,
The proud humbled when tears come.

Returning to the prose under review, I’ve retained many of Michel’s rambling and over-extended sentences not so much because they are indispensible to overall understanding but rather to avoid that spin added by researcher-translator-interpreters such as myself who find it tempting to ease-in some personal curations by way of a convenient deselection or two.

There has not been much comparative discussion over the alternative interpretations available for many parts of this long letter. My own method, developed while examining many of Nostradame’s quatrains in the Centuries, is to dig deep through the etymologies so as to expose the variety of possible meanings buried in so exotic a language of such a long-distant culture. (For instance, ‘sçavoir’ may be updated as ‘savoir’, relating to acquired knowledge, or else it can be translated in its original meaning of ‘wit’ as in ‘knowingness’. Scholar or savant?)

It is quite possible that Michel Nostredame has described here, in glowing and somewhat ‘surnaturel’ terms, an impressive surprise encounter rather than a planned formal meeting (or is offering superfluous decorative paeons pursuant to the demands of the times).

In case you may be startled by the interjections I have extracted from the original text; in speech, the ‘i’ in “i’ay” is the modern French vowel sound in ‘et’, affecting the meter more than the meaning. When written, it’s the consonant sound in ‘je’. Long ago it rendered their interjections di-syllabic (like our ‘God’s Truth!’) but then they reduced this to the monosyllabic ‘aïe’, an abbreviation of ‘aide’. I’ve used ‘Ay!’ and ‘Ah’ for preference.

Of course, Michel’s opening words can be treated as ‘j’ai eu’, I had, and this would make sense should the noun ‘observation’ be tweaked into ‘vision’.

The Centuries are a kind of poetry and, poetic verse was customarily spoken or sung out loud until well after the advent of European printing presses. A letter is not necessarily spoken, of course, and yet we do tend to read a personal letter as if the writer were speaking directly to us. So is it sonically “i’ay” or its re-write “j’ai” or else is there a deliberate ambiguity? A certain gameplay with words was much of the original appeal of Michel’s writings to his native audience in France. With characteristic ambivalence he seems here to deny his famous wordplays. 

I’ve had some fun offering you my Ay! and Ah interjections but ‘I have’ is a perfectly correct if more pedestrian reading and I’m not denying that either selection is secure.

I won’t necessarily continue this depth of explication for the rest of the Epistle. The reader may take as read my speculative yet researched-as-best-I-can approach. I am no expert linguist, nor even close to that, and normally I would run with the context but where free choice exists I will always opt for the view that Nostredame was undergoing or had previously experienced a growing meditative-contemplative awareness towards his own spiritual Enlightenment and then interpret his words accordingly. So here goes with my fresh translation:

For him here to whom my first reaction was to cry out, “O, very Christian and very victorious King”, since my face – for a long time clearly not in its prime – I would present in front of your god-like immeasurable majesty, since it is from within (ah, the aetheric ever dazzles me!) not ceding so much to honorations or proprietory venerations of him that I present myself this day before, hisself being one of whom my singular impression is that he is so very humane.

O.F. ‘souueraine’ is sovereign (often the Divine or the Monarch) but it can represent the reigning high-point of any genre. It seems likely to be a close relative of the Medeval Latin term ‘superanus’. It is quite possible, to translate ‘souueraine observation’ either directly as ‘sovereign observation’ or as ‘singular impression’ both of which feel similar to ‘first impression’ in the sense of a prime response that supports a perpetuated reaction to a person.

An ‘observation’ was either a remark (1549, Deffence de la langue françoyse, Du Bellay) or a law observed (Rec. d’actes du XII et XIII siècles, Tailliar).

A sovereign remedy declared by the Sovereign Court was one without any further Appeal. Likewise, it’s almost impossible to shake-off completely one’s first impression of a person, however unrealistic that may later prove to have been.

The hour searches out this moment by which I am able to manifest a good heart and sheer courage and which by his favour I am able to have gone a goodly portion in unfettered enlightenment: Your Serene Majesty.

The dedication to the ROY DE FRANCE SECOND is most probably a feint, a device with which to slip in and out of clarity on the identity of the addressee. It has been noted that by Sixteenth Century standards the text has “SECOND” placed in Henry’s title so that it seems qualitatitive rather than quantitative. Is this title of ‘king’ merely propitious, even inferring Henry as secondary to some other figure? Further on in the epistle, Nostredame appears to actually address the French King Henry II directly but his introduction to this Epistle – that may double as an exposé of the future kind king alluded to in the Centuries – is one of a spontaneously altered atmosphere: it alludes to a property of visual distraction (ébloui, dazzle) presented by the subtle spirit (esté, essence).

Translation note: ‘esté’ could be ‘East’ or ‘this’ in Modern French (which would support an updating to ‘être’) but equally it could have been selected from the verb ‘ester’ which was both ‘be’ as in remain and ‘be’ as in stand,  yet is related to the English verb ‘esterify’, a word extruded from earlier notions of subtle aetheric planes interfacing between the world of Earthly dimensions and the immeasurable plane of spirit souls. Today this has morphed into technical usage as ‘transesterification’.

Even more confusingly, the OF word ‘longue’ could be used either as ‘long’ (beyond the average) or as a substitute for the OF ‘demi-long’, meaning not of the requisite length or falling short of the ideal.

Further, I saw that it was impossible at that time for me to declare myself yet along with my singular desire out of my so less than requisite stripping of my lower self plus my lack of attained enlightenment I was (nevertheless) spiritually finessed otherwise and transported suddenly before the image of the sovereign eye and of the first monarch of the universe: in this manner (ah, aetherically catalyzed from that dubious sufficiency!) to he by whom I’m given royal audience I dedicate these three Centuries, the remainder of my prophecies, coming down to a thousand after my reflecting upon its bold audacity at maturity. Ah! accept my verbal address, though insufficient decorous,  Your Majesty,

Translation note: ‘to be’ was estre, iestre or aistre in OF and ‘estre’ was also a person’s way of life, so both their state and their estate. This could re-render the odd entry ‘vostre ma iesté’ into something like ‘what’s mine is yours’, although it is commonly translated as ‘Your Majesty’ for a lack of further investigation.

The ‘oueil’ in the puzzling ‘sovereign eye’ could suggest the well-known ‘all-seeing eye of Horus’ image. It also appears as a mystery in the Preface to Cesar, most likely as a symbol for the augur, seer or Prophet of celestially-inspired prophecies. Otherwise it might suggest ‘Oïl’ which was the Anglo-Norman language of Northern France and so, to an extent, of the Royal Court. (Later in the text there is a play on the similar sounding ‘hui’ which represents birdsong or perhaps a fey source of ‘today’ or else simply the parroting of ‘yes’. To expand this a tad further, a slang use of OF ‘latin’ once described bird-chatter and the OF cry ‘hue!’ was of equal pace to “giddy up!”)

not being the shocking thing as is told by the very grave author Plutarch in the Life of Lycurgus who seeing with astonishment, at a time and place, the gifts and offerings fashioned as sacrifices within the temple settings dedicated to the immortal gods, cared not to participate in such a regal presentation. This non-substantial (aetherial) sighting of your regal splendour, accompanied by an incomparable level of humanity, ah! accept my address and be unlike the Kings of Persia to whom one was not permitted to venture near, even less to make approach to them.

Michel is keen to point-up the majesty of the apparition before him and yet seems relaxed enough during this recall of the regal presence to give both him and us a history lesson or two.

Was Michel Nostredame seen face-to-face by the king at a perhaps unsought after portal to some indefinite locale? Or is this a less fantastical one-way vision?

Rather, I have dedicated to a very prudent and very wise Prince my nocturnal and prophetic extrications of days –  an assemblage construed immediately from my astrological penchants and accompanied by by a poetic flurry

Translation note: ‘fureur’ really means ‘rage’ which is difficult to contextualize here without softening it considerably whereas the similar ‘forrëure’ was OF for a warm lining attached under a vestment. Fury or a furry underlay? I think I’ll opt out and go for ‘flurry’ (effarer) which fits surprisingly well. (But see the entry for ‘Nabu’ in II 62 Mabus By Name)

guided by the rules  of poesy and for the greater part evaluated and set out in accordance with Astronomic estimations that correspond to the  years, months and weeks of the regions, countries and the greater towns and cities of all Europe, including Africa and a part of Asia, through zonal occurences which are approaching us, the greatest part of all being climatic, and as reclassified by natural shifts/evolutions. The solving will be like that of someone who be in need of trimming hisself: the physical rhythm is not nearly as difficult as the conceptual conceits behind the strokes.

And as for my works (O, King who is full of such humanity!) the great part of the quatrains are styled so trickily that the one who leaps to a conclusion is the least likely to interpret them correctly: wishing aye that by writing them down I can leave behind me those years, towns, cities and regions where the most part is to come, the same for the years 1585 and 1606, as beginning from the present day, 14th of March, 1557.

Every year must have it’s notable recorded events and doubtless some unrecorded moments of impact also. Of 1585 and 1606 the former would seem to be of more interest to Nostredame than the latter as for a Frenchman it seems a much more dramatic year (and the Centuries are nothing if not dramatic). Even so one is tempted to check for alternative calendar systems or the demystification of some local legend simply to justify highlighting these two years out of so many candidates more worthy of mention. Perhaps there is lost history in here?

Permutating the numeric values in 1557 with 1585 or 1606 will shed no further light, as far as I can see. Could some numerals have been coded so as to rearrange these into, say, 1558 and 1660?

Disregarding that 1585 Broadway was the address of bankers J.P. Morgan Stanley, contemporaneous with their being bailed-out by the American nation, 1585 AD was the year that King Henri III and the Duke De Guise signed the Treaty of Nemours by which the French Huguenots were to lose their special freedoms – so bringing together Nostredame’s publicly demonstrated enthusiasms for Catholicism and Monarchy. This was mirrored in reverse by an event of 1606; the January trial of Guy Fawkes and his Catholic compatriots who were promptly executed for plotting murderously against the ruling Parliament. It doesn’t seem especially likely that a French seer should point-up English religio-political court proceedings but this was nevertheless a pivotal event insofar as things could have gone the exactly opposite way should the Gunpowder Plot have succeeded or the plotters survived. Another English non-event that would have changed pan-European history had it succeeded was in 1585 when the patsy Anthony Babington’s regicide plot against Queen Elizabeth failed, once again suggesting that “the Crown’s ears” had served her well. Secret agents were to increase their powers thereafter, eventually adding large Service Bureaux and their own armed forces to the Secretum.

The flag of the British Union, destined for pan-oceanic pre-eminence over three hundred years, as foretold by Quatrain X 100, was first raised in 1606.

Interestingly, 1585AD was 1260 years (a frequently cited and significant span for the Church) after the Council of Nicaea. Whilst deified trines had been worshipped all through recorded history, in 325 this was pushed forward as the Holy Trinity, a special doctrine of Christianity, despite that Jesus expresses nothing doctrinal of His own in the Bible. (Other than very loosely by foretelling His tragic death as a sacrifice for the common benefit of humanity while referring to Jonah in the whale and telling His disciples to go out and gather more disciples.) It was in 325 that Jesus was officially declared by Rome to have been both a celibate and The Christ that had been long-awaited by Judaism. All bishops summoned there were at the singular dispensation of bloody Emperor Constantine who had clearly founded this Orthodox Imperial Religion to help him bind the great social diversity still to be found across Europe.

The deaths of Pope Gregory XIII and Michel’s literary ally the poet Pierrre de Ronsard both occurred in 1585.

Enormous European progress in Astronomy took place generally in the first decade of the Seventeenth Century although it is difficult to pin down 1606 specifically. (Actually, 1607 is the only year to appear twice in the Centuries, in both Quatrain VI 54 and Quatrain VIII 71. The latter is about the plight of ‘astronomes’ and says the year is defined by the ‘sacred globes’. The year 1609 is given in Quatrain X 91 but it seems on face value that every one of these predictions failed.)

and passing far beyond until the advent/fresh event that will be after the beginning of the seventh ‘milinaire’ (period of 1,000 years) concretely calculated,

The seventh ‘milinaire’ occurred for Muscovites in 1492, with an attendant millennium movement, that year being 7000 Annus Mundi according to the Eastern Church.

The 7980-years formed by multiplying the 28-year Solar Cycle and the 19-year Lunar Cycle by the 15-year indiction cycle was called the Julian period. ‘Indiction’ was a uniform fold of time used by Rome to schedule land tax reassessments in Egypt. By  decree it became a standard measurement of time that had to be be referenced by all dating systems. Its Annus Mundi assumes a common starting point for the Lunar and Solar cycles. Calendars enable celestial complexes to be charted for a birth or death or other matter of great religious significance. The First Incarnation of Jesus is very often the central period in such a system.

such that my astronomic calculations plus other things that I know have extended a little (beyond the religious writings) whereat the adversaries of Jesus Christ and of his Church will more extremely start to congregate, the whole aegis/era having been composed and calculated by me in days and hours judicious and well arrayed in as just a manner as my spirit maketh possible and under Minerva the Moon on the most favourable days (“Minerva libera et non invita”) calculating as many adventures of times yet to occur as of eras passed, including a grasp of the present, and of what by the course of time and by all regions one will see to have occurred, all thus by name as nothing misdirecting or superfluous is in there, however one might say: “Truly, the future may not be totally determined”. (“Quod de futuris non est determinata omnino veritas”)

Translation note: OF ‘a esté’ may well equate to ‘hath been’ whilst ‘ma esté’ might have meant either my spirit or my being. (To be in the spirit, or not to be, that is the question)

It is well true, Sire, that regarding my astrological bent, my own subtle spirit has given me this; as for my family forebears they never considered the making of prognostications; and adjusting and granting hereunto natural instinct united with my lengthy computations, evidenting the spirit and the soul plus that courage (needed) in all purifications, in solicitude masking-out the world by inward meditation, and any negative reactions by repose and peace of the spirit. All in accordance with presagings by the one of the wrought alloy saddle. (stool, tripod)


How much some would write down to my account that which should be alloted to others – which is not a laughing matter to Everlasting God, who will eventually search for our self-purificatory thoroughness, the perscrutator of human braveries, the just and the merciful, the true judge, to whom I request vigilance to protect me from the calumnies of the wicked who also make libellous suggestions about me – I would enquire how all your most ancient progenitors, the Kings of France, have dispelled the scrofulous ones, they and other nations’ rulers have quelled the bite of snakes – these others have had a certain instinct of the art of the snake hisself – and there are other such cases made famous by the retelling of them far and wide.

In the tail of the phrase “les autres ont eu certain instinct de l’art d’iui natrice” there may be traced the orderly fragments of the word ‘divinatrice’. It is from ‘divinateur’, the meanings of which range from a blissful god-like seer to a heavenly divine. The similar-seeming yet more obscure word ‘niateurs’ will appear later in the text. It is not so clear to me whether any of these terms were in verbal currency back in the Sixteenth Century, the more common Medeval forms being ‘devineresse’ or ‘devin’ (soothsayer). It’s my guess that ‘natrice’ might describe recumbency and basking upon the ground linking the OF ‘nateresse’ to OF ‘natteur’ (literally ‘the mat posturer’) and so penning the word ‘snake’ at least gives me something to keep the narrative flowing. Otherwise, did other nations’ rulers have “a certain instinct of the art of divination”? All-in-all a puzzle to me, if not to others.

Does depth of detailing matter? Language is approximate at best and is not solely public property. Words can mean different things to us at different stations in time. Seizing upon the most common or easily quotable definitions leads to circuitous logic. Plato said that the right way is to employ a knowing that is non-propositional; neither book-learning nor hearsay knowledge but from some internalized grip on a thing. Following an inner feeling may sometimes mislead us – Nostredame expresses this very fear – but is right for much of the time and will offset the ‘borrower risk’ that may make many Nostradamus commentaries fail in unison.

This notwithstanding, those whose deleterious nature and malign spirit will not be overtaken by the course of time after the final flow of my stream (alternatively, the extinction of my homeland), it will be my inscription – if it be that I have misavowed by my human frailty or vibrance during my calculations of the eras – that the people not then exert their own spirit to accord with the wills of others.

This may be heard by those with ears to hear, so to speak! Michel was aware that practical people (including successful sheep and master monkeys) are tied to the wheel by their educations and cultures and cannot cope with paradigm shifts until after the new has been explained to them by Theorists. (The natural-born outsiders to any system). This is due to the rather tunnel-visioned nature of their acceptance of whatever is the current status quo. Given the new winning rules to follow through with, the ‘practical’ ones will then pick-up the ball and run with it yet again. He also knows that the many servants make the few masters, not the other way around as people have been persuaded to believe by their school teachers. Society is a whole system comprising subsystems of which divers polities (driven by temporal and religious ideologies; financial, military and commercial ginger groups, social fundamentalists) are just some amongst many demographic groups with no moral reason why any one group or class should rise above any another. And yet the distortions of the monetary system and its clueless competitions plus the continuing absence of enlightenment have led us into an unfolding global nightmare. People have souls which are not disposable by the elite. Political P.R.’s manipulating Hegelian dialectics in some controlled media melange must eventually sink under their own tongue-age. It is just not possible to fool all of the people all of the time. What worries Michel Nostredame is that if he has got something wrong then his readership influence might dwindle away. He says that even if his perceptions should seem quite unbelievable, do not agree to be ruled unquestioningly. After all it is your own spirit that is the source of your society’s powers. To own yourself is to be in opposition to the latest small group that seeks to dominate all others.

The sleek and quotable Leoni translation commonly perpetuated elsewhere for these lines is “Notwithstanding those who cannot contain the malignity of the evil spirit,as time elapses after my death, my writings will have more weight than during my lifetime”. Indeed this Leoni line is an echo of an original phrase to be found in one of Nostredame’s periodicals,  the Almanac for 1557’s dedication to Queen Catherine: “Immortalis ero vivus, moriensque magisque post mortem nomen vivet in orbe meum”. It’s something that Nostredame boldly intended to assert full-bloodedly and is almost spookily impressive as the Centuries have indeed remained in print until this day (and some quatrains are more popular now than ever).

If it may please your more than imperial Majesty

The next phrase is “me pardonner protestant deuant Dieu & ses saincts” and the translation probably should be

excuse me protesting before God and his Saints

but could be

… forgive me my protestant confession before God and his Saints …

because, although ‘protestant’ is a noun and the Sixteenth Century had its ‘Les Seigneurs protestans’, it was also the present participle of ‘protester’ which would suggest an embracing of or an advocation for the ongoing process of Protestantization. A Nostradamus text clearly confessing anti-Catholicism would have been unacceptable to the official censor-cleric who would have denied commercial publication. It has been claimed that Nostredame was a closet Lutheran (despite that Martin Luther was openly anti-Jewish and Michel came from a Jewish background) or even a pagan but he might equally have been a Reformist like the Franciscans or even an advanced version of a Pietist. However, he suffered from Calvinist abuse and if Jean Chavigny is to be believed he honoured fully all of Catholicism’s ceremonies and rituals.

Is this next sentence an obscuration? A certain ambiguity comes from ‘I do not claim’ followed by a further negative.

I do not claim to have put in writing nought any in the present epistle which is contradictory to the true Catholic faith, bestowing this with Astronomic calculations adjunct with my acquired knowledge, since the span of the eras in our earliest times which have preceded us are such, setting me back under the check of sounder judgement,

The last line “setting me back …” could be out of proper sequence here. Possibly it should come after “acquired knowledge” so producing,

“bestowing this with Astronomic calculations adjunct with my acquired knowledge, setting me back under the check of sounder judgement, since the span of the eras in our earliest times which have preceded us are such …”

that the first man Adam came around 1,242 years before Noah not taking into account the times allotted the Gentiles, as put forward by the scribe Varron:

Varro (d. 27 BC) once wrote that Branchus (see BRANCHES in Nostradamus Quatrain I 2) was sired by Apollo.  He compiled the Varronian Chronicles, a list of Roman consuls stretching back to the Sixth Century this being a high office that was used as a time-marker in the semi-calendrical ‘fastis’ or lists of events. Latin ‘dies fasti’  means a day allowed/allotted for the transaction of Roman public business. It is difficult to know the intention of Nostredame here.

The ancients did not so much tally the years as add together famous lifespans or totalize generations and there are several conflicting alternative calculations for the span from Adam to the Deluge. The Bible gives these numbers:

130 (Adam’s age at birth of Seth) + 105 (to birth of Enos) + 90 (Kenan) + 70 (Mahalel) + 65 (Jared) + 162 (Enoch) + 65 (Methusaleh) + 187 (Lamech) +182 (Noah) + 600 (Noah’s age at the Deluge) 

but there were others used, for example there is one that has simply added 100 years to the age of any  of these new fathers listed above as under 180, as if that were ridiculously young! 

It has been held that the ten generations from The Deluge to Abraham numbered 1,121 years and from him to David 1,024 years and from him to Jesus 1,113 years making a total of 3, 258 years. 2,242 is the difference in years between the publication of the First Edition of the Centuries in 1555 and 3797, the year claimed by Nostredame to house the last of the quatrain predictions. Interestingly, 3,258 + 2,242 = 5,500.

5,500 is a figure which has been claimed to set a date on the Annus Adami or even the Annus Mundi, the Beginning of the World, so rendering the birth of Jesus as 4BC whereas it is often presumed to be 6BC these days with His death somewhere between 27 and 36AD. Yet another quite convincing calculation fixes the Last Supper as having happened on March 25th 42AD which could make Him a little more middle-aged than is normally supposed.

It seems that all these numbers may be manipulated ruthlessly.

following, rather than such, the sacred Scriptures only, and following the feelings of my spirit, that are inherent to my Astronomic calculations.

There should be no doubting that Astrology and all the sciences owe much to intuition. As Einstein – who only ever conducted “thought experiments” – chose to put it, “Imagination is more valuable than book learning”. However, Augustine wrote in ‘City of God’ of the “highly mendacious documents which profess to give the history of many thousands of years, though reckoning by the sacred writings we find that not 6,000 years have passed” and he adds that the old Greek chronology falls within “the true account of the duration of the world as it is given in our documents which are truly sacred.” Books carry a certain mass and solidity. Medieval Holy Books materialized the unimpeachable wisdom of their scribes. Would they have seemed so inarguable if they had been less tangible; words found on audio in computer files or dictated onto CD’s?

After Noah, he of the global deluge, came Abraham, in the region of 1,080 years, who hath been the supreme Astrologer without parallel, he first introduced the Chaldean textualisms:

Not to be confused with the Chaldean Oracles that surfaced in the Second Century and that held on high the mysteries of a sect with closed-membership, long past.

then came Moses around 515 or 516 years later, and between David and Moses had been 570 years thereabouts.

After then, between the era of David and the era of our saviour and redeemer Jesus Christ, born of the unrivalled Virgin Mary, had been (following some chronographies) 1,350 years: some may be able to argue that this calculation is not proper,  for this is put back later than that of Eusebius.

In a Latin-French translation dated 1355 the OF ‘differe’ is used to mean ‘deferred’.

Eusebius of Caesarea (d.371AD) held that God created the world 5,200 – 5,199 BC which is at variance with Michel’s implied total here of 5,757-8 years. But Eusebius tended to overlook some time periods in the OT/NT such as the one that was inferred by Paul’s letter to the Galatians, 3:17, “A covenant confirmed before by God to Christ, the law, that came four hundred and thirty years after”. Anyhow, it seems that there is little support in Christian Testaments for any total and Michel de Nostredame noticeably witholds his own reckoning of this bottom line.

It’s been argued that the Bible has a time system that is centered on the Crucifixion. For example, some claim that the intervening gaps between the ‘creation of  Adam’ and ‘calling of Abraham’ and the Crucifixion is the exact same number of years (despite that the precise duration of a calendar year is as defined by humans and not by God). Or that the history of Israel according to the Hebrew Bible(s) was rather cyclical. However, demonstrating all this requires the kind of jiggery-pokery that seems beneath the majesty of God. Likewise, the notion that God applies Time differently to prophecies, i.e. the times of total defeat for Israel (the captivities) simply do not get counted by Him. This is used to justify some of the dubious features of ‘Daniel’ . (Called Dan’l in pre-Hebrew religious texts, by the way.)

And since the times of Mankind’s redemption until to the detestable persuasion of the Saracens, aroundabout 621 years passed, one can with but little effort collate the times that are passed, the hypothetic monthly computation is not the rightful and legitimate method amongst all peoples, for this hath been calculated by way of the celestial zones, compiled at certain hours of abandon out of a frisson saturated with a feeling from my forebears of old.

But the shortcoming of the times, oh so serene King, requires that such eventful secrets should not so much be held up high than be covered by a pragmatic epigram, that is not to have only one sense or a sole sign,

‘Polysemy’ conveys the capacity for a sign or signs to have multiple meanings (sememes) in a sizeable semantic field, likewise Parables.

but less to have writ therein anything ambivalent or structurally ambiguous: more under an overweaning darkness by a natural saturation (type of) approach to that (death) sentence by God, of the one representing all and of the two Prophets who are in spirit since the creation of the world, pursuant to the assessment in the Punic (Phoenician) Chronicle of Joel; Effundam spiritû meum super omnem carnem, et prophetabunt filij vestri, et filiae vestrae. (“I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh and your sons and daughters will prophesy.”)

Michel has flipped the phrase “le mille en un” (used in French literature since at least 1610 and so most likely in currency well before that and meaning ‘the passive epitomizer’)  so as to mean ‘the one actively representing us all’. Or else somebody had flipped Nostradame’s phrase. It was quite of-its-era for an author to muse upon the unmusable, such as the mystery of a Saviour-Redeemer who is both past and future yet in the present case, in order to build inspiration. Suspiciously,  book knowledge – including astrological and biblical – is often given lip-service by Michel for its importance, if not prominence, despite his own personal burning of certain books and his hints elsewhere that such knowledge will become lost or rendered irrelevant by massive upheavals to come.

But such Prophecy proceeded out upon some of this number from the mouth of the Holy Ghost, which attests to the highest and eternal power adjunct with Heaven, having them predict great and marvellous events. I enter this: I do not attribute to myself by no means such a construct, Ay! Hath with? God doth disapprove! I avow that all comes from God, and deflect/defer to him his favour, honour, immortal praise,  without having mixed therewith that divination which extrapolates evidentially:

Michel de Nostradame (aka Michaël Nostradamus) is clearly aligning himself with the Biblical Prophets (“He hath revealed His counsel unto His servants the prophets.” Amos 3:7) but then confuses this somewhat typically by suggesting that either (i) God has counselled him yet he has not abandoned his charts, or (ii) he is writing from his charts which he feels agree with insights given him by God although only “for the most part” which suggests that (iii) he relied to a degree upon both.

but to God, naturally, and for the most part accompanied by tracings of the celestial course, so that seeing is much like, so to speak, in a burning mirror, as visibility is clothed like the lily (a bulb like the onion bulb), the great events sad ones, portentous, and those calamitous courses which hang over the main cultivators/protagonists. Firstly for the public servants at the edifices of God, secondly for those worldly ones who by deleteriousness cause such closings-over, along with a thousand other calamities which one knows will happen in time: because God will look at the long sterility of the great lady, who afterwards will then conceive two principal children:

At first sight, Catherine de Medicis appears to fit to this. She married in 1533 and first gave birth in 1544. Prince Francois became King of France and Princess Elizabeth, born 1545, became Queen of Spain. Three of Catherine’s sons did become kings (each one of France) yet the rest of the following prediction fails to fit to her family of ten children.

but she collapses, the female of which – affected by the temerity of the age – collapses as if dead in her eighteenth year, not being able to exceed her thirty-sixth year she will leave behind her three males, and a female, and in these will be two who have not at all the same father,

There are imperfect resemblances here to the Borgias , an ancient family with whom all Euro-royalty today has links. Rodrigo (Pope Alexander VI, whose mother was an Aragonais and father was a Cardinal) had, with a married mistress, three sons and a daughter (a third of his admitted output) upon whom he devoted much wealth of Italy, the Church and anything else he could plunder. The principal offspring were Cesare and Lucretia, who was fluent in Valencian. She died aged 39. Her daughter Leonora became a nun. Although they do not fit to the storyline here, their own family story is so redolent of this as to place this account by Nostredame firmly in Renaissance Italy. Or else some upcoming time of ruling families, vicious greed, political corruption, institutionalized debauchery in leading households, murders by frustrated satanists and fake papacy. Or it is purely allegorical.

of the three brothers there will be such differences and then links and accords such that three or four parts of Europe will tremble: the least in age will support and advance Christian Regnance: breeding doctrinal groups then abruptly subduing them, Arabs will retreat, Kingdoms unite, new Laws are enacted: of the other children the senior will wear the crown/the escutcheon of the fierce Lions holding out their paws ‘at the intrepid’.

The outstretched lions horizontal on the flags of British and other royalty are termed “passant”. Richard the Lionheart,  though, had three with upraised paws. The funeral bier of Elizabeth I was accompanied by one dozen banners of her ancestors, each banner being ‘impaled’ (two flags per face) with heraldic lions grouped, either passant or standing upright, featured on every banner.  Most every European Royal House has had heraldic lions passant/intrepid.

The next eldest, having the Romans/Lazios/Catholics for his company, makes a second journey shaking and raving to Mont-Louis (a fortified town in Southern France known as Montlluís to the Spanish) downhill and uphill over the Pyrenees, not negotiating an exchange like the monarchs of old, making the third inundation of human blood, for a long time Mars will not be in Caresme.

(VI  88 in the Article ‘STORED UP IN THE NORTH WIND’)

If Mars is March and not the troublesome planet-god then it might have made more sense to write that ‘for a long time Lent will not be in March’ unless this should be translated as ‘Mars will not be in Caresme for long’, so a time-marker of when Lent straddles two months. However, it was a familiar Medeval saying that something was as steady as ‘mars en Quaresme’ and so to be considered as wholly true or ‘une vérité entière’. (1389, ‘Viel Pelerin’, de Mesieres  éd. Coopland)

As well as meaning Lent, a ‘Caresme des Femmes’ was a forty days term, as from the death of the husband, during which the Law would only assign any financial transfers to the widow, i.e. a legal quarantine of sorts. (The word ‘quarantine’ is basically the 40-day waiting period at Venice during  plague times before the passengers could disembark from incoming boats.) Forty days has strong Biblical associations and is a meaningful number in zodiacal precession and astrological myth. Passing over Winter is the laborious task of each annual Sun, i.e. it needs must climb from around 16 degrees below the celestial equator for a forsaken forty degrees up to the Spring equinox about 24 degrees above the celestial equator and in this way, say some, the winter gloom is overcome by the young Sun’s constancy of purpose.

And the daughter will be given into the keeping of the Christian Church, falling for her Master into the paganic doctrines of the new heretics she will have two children. Of her two children, one will be faithful to the Catholic Church, the other a heretic according to the Catholic conformities.

And this other who has (shared) her great confusion and late repentance (yet) would ruin her, will have three extremely differing regions, to wit Italy, Germany, Spain, thereby to reinforce their particular partisanships by military means, going out from the 50th and the 52nd degree of latitude,

50th Parallel North; Brussels, Frankfurt, Krakow, Prague
52nd Parallel North; Birmingham, Berlin, The Hague, Warsaw

“Going out” seems somewhat ambiguous.

and all will render the homages of religions distant to the regions of Europe and the Seven Stars (Septrionalis) of the 48 degrees vertical,

Kuwait is at 48°North Longitude (Vienna is at 48°North Latitude). A meaningful dividing-up of 360° is used in the Zodiac to finely determine the bases for all astrological interpretations and supplying the 8°, 30°, 48°, 90° limits and others (e.g. Venus can be placed no further than 47° from the Sun.)

out of whom the weak by their deficiency shall tremble first, then the most Westernmost, Southernmost and Easternmost parts will tremble, such will be their power, whether or no that which will be from their hostile conquests is an ironclad harmony or an insuperable union.

Translation note: The text word ‘insuperable’ seems to be Anglo-Norman.

By nature they will be equals, but with great differences of faith. Following after this the unfruitful Dame (Royal Lady) of greater power than the second will be received by two peoples, by the first who are made obdurate by he who hath power over all, by the second and out of this the third which will have extended their forces against the system from Eastern Europe through the Pannonian states; there having overwhelmed and subjugated and by marine stealth will pursue his incursions to Trinacrie Adriatique by Mirmidon and the Germaniques all of which will succumb and become Barbarics with the whole of the Romance regions being greatly afflicted and purged.

Here’s the first of two references to ‘Trinacrie’.

(The letters of Trinacrie appeared earlier in this Epistle jumbled up in the phrase ‘l’art d’iui natrice’.)

OF has ‘trin’ for three. The OF ‘tri’ is different from the Latin tri-. It means sorting-out and comes from ‘trier’, to select. OF ‘triadamens’ is Old Occitan for ‘neatly’.

Acre and its variations are very long-standing and widespread expressions for land.

The equally odd-looking word ‘simulacre’ entered Middle English via France in the Fourteenth Century. It has many synonyms and OF takes it from whatever that object we currently revere may be to a travesty or a ghost.

The first triumvirate at Rome  was the alliance of Crassus the rich man with both Pompey the successful general and political Julius Caesar in his bid for election as Consul.

The Financial Troika of Europe today is the European Union EU, European Central Bank ECB and the International Monetary Fund IMF.

This phrase ‘Trinacrie Adriatique’ is not quite clear. If geographical, is it Italia plus Dalmatia and Macedonia? From the Fourteenth Century the island Kingdom of Sicily in the Mediterranean Sea had the occasional name Trinacria (a nickname taken from its approximate resemblance to a triangle.)

There were many places with names starting ‘Tri’ including piratical Tripoli, Syria (inhabited by Muslims, Christians and Jews) Western Tripoli in Libya and Trino in Italy seized by the French in 1704 and then abandoned.

2016: the province of Tripolitania, Libya, is divided between an Islamist group and a weakened Government of National Accord as recognised by the ‘international community’.

The Tripartite Pact, 1940, welded together Germany, Italy and Japan. Other East European and East Asian countries also joined-up including Hungary, decimated by the Treaty of Trianon, the Manchukuo Empire, the New National Government of China, Thailand and Yugoslavia (after Germany had postponed Operation Barbarossa in order to attack Yugoslavia and Greece).

The OF ‘barbarique’ is from the Greek for outlandish. Even today some communities hold that all foreigners are ill-mannered taboo-breakers or barbarous heathens, invasive exploiters or uninvited ne’er-do-wells who do not know the social limits. The Moslems/Arabs/Mongols were often portrayed as such in Nostredame’s day when they were greatly feared in Christian Europe for their ‘unholy’ personalities, especially in Austria-Hungary.

The Berbers’ special name for themselves meant‘freemen’ but to the Romans all tribes everywhere were ‘barbarians’.  As ‘barb’ is also ‘beard’ we encounter some ‘redbeards’ in history by virtue of that surname. Ariadeno Barbarossa (d.1546) was a corsair who switched roles to became admiral of the Turkish fleet in 1534. The Barbary Coast is Algeria.

Plague-torn areas were at first so assaulted socially, with class and age sets being almost eliminated and brazen sexual trawling that overcame all previous morality, they might be called barbaric.

Hermolaus Barbarus was a great Venetian polymath who, caught between conflicting secular and religious ranks,  became exiled and died a plague victim in 1493. Nostredame in his ‘Traité des Fardemens’ mentions a health-food marzipan bar which he learned how to cook from a letter by Barbarus.

A coming barbarity was the 1793-4 wrong-headed government policy in Revolutionary France, the Reign of Terror. (The year of  1792 gets a firm reference in the Centuries.) Robespierre justified to the world that popular government during revolution required both virtue and terror but the result was an unhoped for level of civic barbarity.

However, Nostredame writes his ‘Barbariques’ with a capital ‘B’ suggesting a nation, a movement or a religious group. It happens that the forebidden Marcionite Gnostics of the Second through Fourth Centuries considered the New Testament a separate issue from the Hebrew Bible/OT and branded the deity therein incompetent and barbaric: especially compared to the true divinity expressed by Jesus. Interest in them seems to have revived during the first half of the Sixteenth Century.

It is not so clear whether the Macedonian Myrmidons/Greek Myrmidones were a real tribe akin to the Thessalonians and about which myths were made or whether they were just plain mythological. Michel Nostredame seems steeped in ancient history here. We do know that his visions needed some bookwork to place them. What we do not know is whether he had good information sources for Historical and Geographical references and used the very best ways to find them from his astrological observations.

Then the great Empire of the Antichrist will begin in the Atila & Zerses.

Foregoing for a moment the urge to rewrite this as ‘Attila and Xerxes’, there might just be an A-Z to consider here. (Those ‘literary’ or ‘classical’ prophets associated with historical events inhabit the Hebrew Bible from Amos to Zechariah, arguably.) Could this imply a totality or a completion? Or might it suggest Northern Syria, the place where our imported alphabet first developed?

Xerxes I (murdered in his own Court, 465 BC) was King of Persia.Priests of the great temple dedicated to Branchus and Apollo betrayed its treasures over to him. He led a huge army over the Hellespont-Dardanelles and across Greece winning the battle of Thermopylae but then he lost all his gains whilst bringing vengeance down upon Persia. In 447AD, Attila the Hunnic Emperor also won Thermopylae. His ravaging of Northern Italy in 452 (whereby Aquiliae was razed) caused Venice to be built on defensive islands in the sea. But natural disasters and a Roman army venting destruction on their under-defended Hun homeground caused Attila to turn back. The following year he died suddenly after spitting blood, probably an assassination. There were a thousand years between these two horrific men and their gigantic roaming forces. A further thousand years would bring us to around the time that the Centuries were being composed.

will descend in a number great and uncountable, such that the coming of the Holy spirit will proceed from the  degree 48, making a transmigration (out from one place or from one human body and into another) chasing out the abomination of the Antichrist, who will wage war opposing that Imperator who is the great Vicar of Jesus-Christ and his Church, and his reign ‘per tempus et in occasione temporis’ (various interpretations possible here, my own being ‘in the eternal and the punctual moment’) and will take place before a solar eclipse, the most opaque and most sombre that has been since the Creation, excepting the death and Passion of Jesus-Christ, and then up to here, and it will be in the month of October that some great translation (transformation or traduction) will be made

The abbreviation formed by adding a circumflex or umlat and omitting one written letter was quite common, even unruly, in OF. But it just might be worth mentioning that the text word ‘translatiô’ also appears in the publication ‘Tresmoignage de Temps’ by Guiillaume Bude, Conseiller du Roy, Maistre des Requestes Ordinaire de son Hostel’ (1547 Lyon). It has, inter alia, sections headed Solon and Artoxerxes, one on Fabius Maximus opposing the invader Hannibal and another on Hannibal’s response to Scipio. Michel de Nostredame the Royal Physician in Ordinary was also a Counsellor and may well have known this book written by his Courtly predecessor.

and such that people will consider the gravity of Earth to have lost its natural movement, and to be plunged into everlasting gloom, up to the Spring equinox and that ensuing after extreme changes, interchanges of rule, by great earth tremors, with the busy springing-up of the new Babylon, miserable daughter made bigger by the atrocities of the first fiery sacrifice, and holding on never more than 73 years, 7 months,

By contorting between prior and present calendar year-counts, some Russians have justified this “new Babylon” lasting 73 years and 7 months as being close as can be to the opening and closing months of Bolchevikism. Interestingly, the expression “new Babylon” could be read religiously here, i.e. Communism as a form of pagan heresy; a secular rival to the faith, Church-like in some of its dimensions. The timetable will fit (but not the description of it which sounds more like modern Iraq or land rising out of the sea temporarily). In its way the Opera Nostredamus has sometimes played a part in unfolding history including, perhaps, this apparent closure for the Soviet Union.

In the Preface to Cesarwe find another obscure number reference in “177 years 3 months and 11 days” or 177 3 11 which is the numerically very similar 77 3 with a trio of numeral 1’s writ around.

then after issuing from that stem which had remained sterile such a long time, proceeding from the 50th degree, which will renew all the Christian Church. And there will be made great peace union and accord between individuals of the next generation whose mental wounds will heal over, and the various separate regimes will make such peace that there abides chained to the deepest abyss the inceptor and implementer of the military wing for the disparate ultraorthodox ones, and will concrete over the inferno of the Rabieux (literally, the Raving): who feign that there is wisdom in their words.

The use of a capital letter for a nation or movement or as a religious identifier was by then quite usual (‘jour des Rameaux’ was the day of Palms) and the titles Rabi and Rabbi (posibly out of ‘rav’, meaning chief, lord, liege, sire) were in use in Nostredame’s time for persons of religious authority: those doctors of the law to be addressed as “my master”, “my professor”, “my teacher”, this latter also being a reference given to Jesus in the Bible and an honour granted to John the Baptist. Being a medical man, Michel Nostredame may even have referenced the maddening disease rabies spread by the bite of rabid curs. Rabbi is the uniform title for Jewish religious instructors to this day and may even have come from Akkadian, the onetime diplomatic language of the Near East, which has ‘rabium’ for leader or chief. The  feigning, rabid leaders of the nations?

And the countries, towns, cities, kingdoms and provinces which will have abandoned their old ways for licentiousness, entraining them so strongly it will be the hidden cause of their losses of freedom, and the perfect lost religion, will start to strike to the left, then rebound on the right, and restoring the overweening holiness for a long time, with its chiselled inscriptions, that after the great dog enters the greatest mastiff, which makes destruction out of all, of this the selfs who previously will have reached enlightenment, will re-format the temples as they were at their beginning, and the cleric will be restored to his immaculate state, and starting with the alluring and the lustful, that make and commit one thousand degradations/derogations.

And there approaches another overthrowing, by that time she will be at her height and sublime in dignity, which will draw up its potentates and military leaders who to her will make chastening their swords, and to her will remain nothing but the war-cries, which by the device of the curvature enthralls them, the people making to go straight,

The Roman General and Consul Gaius Marius (whose personal story of omen and predestination – his finding of an unusual 7 eagle eggs in a mountain nest predicted his being elected to high office 7 times and caused the eagle to be flown as the symbol of superstitious Rome) had reorganized the Roman fighting tactics, introducing rigid line-discipline and practiced, cold-bloodied delivery of well-executed death-blows all preceded by a wide range of missiles. Before that the Roman soldiers had been regularly terrified by the Celtic Charge, a straight-ahead roaring blood-fury and senseless battle madness unaccompanied either by lack of courage or by any change in direction. But after new training the Romans methodically felled them, overthrowing that status quo. Nevertheless, the Roman military remained impressed by the brave Celts and their officers took to sporting gold versions of the beautiful Celtic battle necklace, with its curvilinear plaitted rods resting upon the chest, that had come to represent the straight charge at its most overwhelming.

and not wanting to vouchsafe to them the side opposite to the sharp hand, touching ground,

This sounds a little like a Tarot symbol lost to us today. Or a long shield for kneeling behind, the typical Roman short sword being held in the “sharp hand”.

will want to stir-up what will be born of a branch from the long sterile time until that which will free the people everywhere out of their passive and self-inflicted thralldom, the self given up to the protection of Mars so depriving Jupiter of all its honour and dignity, for the city of liberty, established and seated in an otherwise rundown Mesopotamia.

Save for a geographical reference to Mesopotamia, this could easily have been a description of Hispanic cavalry who, for several centuries BC, trained horses in hiding to remain totally silent while kneeling on their front legs (in order not to disclose the presence of them and the hidden infantry that they were supporting). Also that freedom from impulsive abandonment of wills in the face of Celtic Mars that Jovian Gaius Marius had conjured into place.

If ‘Mesopotamia’ is a misplaced metaphor for the ‘barbarians’ including the Carthaginian, llergetian and Numedian rivals to Rome placed around the Mediterranean to crouch behind , then the text hangs together. But if this previews the modern Middle East, spotlighting Iraq, then the following may refer to enforced regime-change subsequent to ‘9/11’.

And the chief and governor will be cast out of his/their environs, and up in the air, ignorant of the plot by the sworn conspirators with the second Trasibulus, who will have manipulated all this for a long period of time.

This reference to the Athenian advocator of democracy and elected general Thrasybulus evokes his ambitions to restore democracy by deposing tyranny and to grow his own country’s imperialism thereafter.

Then the unearthly abominations will exist, the most shameful show of objects and exhibits from dusk to dawn,

Disgusting distressing images painted on the night sky?

ceasing around the end of the change of that rule, and the keys of the Church will be inferior to the love of God, and several from between them (being) the main apostatizers of the true faith, and of these three sects, that of the middle one of these  partisan cultures as mentioned hereunto will be put into decadence to a degree. The first is absolutely the main one of Europe, the greater part of Africa is blotted-out by the third, the middle is poor in spirit, as incessant arousal by libidinous lust will corrupt them. The plebians will be succoured by the undertaking, driving out the cult of the legalists, and it  will seem from the realms enfeebled by Orientals that God the Creator has unbound Satan from the infernal brig, to bring into being the great Dog & Dohan,

Shades of  biblical Gog and Magog (that Alexander the Great thought were tribes of Central Asia) but perhaps astrological. Ursa Minor was once called the Dog with the old Greek name for Polaris – our current Pole Star – meaning literally the Dog’s Tail.


which will be the great breakaway abominable to the Churches, that neither the whites nor the reds with neither eyes nor hands use the law any further, and their power will be unravelled/unbound.

Another ambiguous word, this ‘ostee’. Will their power be unthreaded or unbridled? With all published traductions of the Opera Nostradamus so far, the temptation to use undeclared guesswork has seemed strongly evident. The word ‘ostee’ is often mistranslated as ‘ousted’ (which is OF, évincé) even though in writing it much resembles the OF ‘ostez’ (austere) and in speech it would probably have sounded close to OF ‘hostie’ (host). These thoughts aside, it usually appears in OF literature to describe unravelling or unbinding. But does this sentence mean that power is depressed under restraints or that power strikes out unrestrained? The reds and the whites are without eyes or hands because they follow blindly in a human chain. Presumably the red clerics follow the papacy, the whites or patriot priests follow the dominant social system where they live.

And then will come to be a greater persecution of the Churches than has ever been. And in the midst of all these happenings will be born the pestilence so great that more than two thirds of the world will go down with it. So much that no-one left will have appropriate know-how  behoving regulation of fields and communities, and there will flourish undergrowths more than knee-high throughout the villages and cities.

This last sentence sounds like a description of the fatal epidemics in France during Michel’s lifetime, when all social functionaries (including some academic physicians) were of that class which evacuated their homelands along with their household staffs and retinues. Notably, there is no reference here to any feature of an industrialized society.

And to the  ecclesiastics will come a total devastation, and a usurpation of the military which will return from the city of Soleil to Melite,

 Like ‘par’, the French word ‘de’ has various acceptable translations including the contradictory pair ‘to’ and ‘from’ which are possibly reversible in here. The City of the Sun is usually a reference to Paris or to the Vatican/Rome.

Melite/Melito. In ‘Bible Myths and Their Parallels in Other Religions’, T. W. Doane wrote, “Melito (a Christian bishop of Sardis) in the year 170, claims the patronage of the emperor, for the now so-called Christian religion, which he calls “our philosophy,” on account of its high antiquity, as having been imported from countries lying beyond the limits of the Roman empire, in the region of his ancestor Augustus, who found the importation ominous of good fortune to his government.”

Three of the Greek ‘preSocrats’ – Thales, Aniximines and Anaximander – were from Miletus a coastal city in  Ionia. According to Anaximander’s engineered cosmology there are plural universes or kosmoi. Thales was the effective founder of the derivatives markets.

There is a Port-Melite overlooking the Bay of Biscay, given to the usual marine sunsets. There are further Melites (the Greek ‘melita’ means honey: Napoleon’s military were symbolized as his ‘bees’) around the Mediterranean including the Adriatic island of Mljet, which was overrun by snakes in Medeval times, and Malta the main strategic stepping-stone between Europe and North Africa. The Knights of Malta fly their international banner in Rome not far from the Vatican’s flag of state.

and the Isles d’Hyeres/Ile Stechades, and the great tethering of the haven that takes its name from sea beef will be unloosed.

The gulf of Hyères is a part of Provence.

‘Bœuf’ is a trickier word than it looks. Its OF meaning was bull and the Latin source ‘bos’ or ‘bovis’ has been used classically to mean ‘man of iron’. Latin has trion for plough-ox. The earth-ox was terrion. In Greek the ox was boen. The name Bosphorus translates as ox-ford and Istanbul’s waters are often known as the Golden Horn. Oddly, the Latin trion or plough-ox seems to appear in the Septentrionalis, the seven trions, the Latin name for the constellation Ursa Major (though sometimes used for plain North).

The alphabet started at the cosmopolitan city port of Ugarit in North Syria where Phoenicians added the ABC to Ugaritic, the first cuneiform language suitable for common communication. All semitic languages descend from this and transmitted the Ugarit Canaanites religious myths. Aleph (‘A’) is the ox.

Quatrain VII 49 has ‘Satur.au beuf’ on the menu, meaning Saturn in Taurus.  But in this text it is the port of the marine bull or marine male ox. Or simply sea beef.

In Line 2 of Nostradamus Quatrain VIII 46 we encounter the Tarasque of Port Tarascon, a “fabled monster of the legends of Provençal” (‘Histoire de Provence’, Cesar de Nostredame, 1614, Lyon, possibly extracted from ‘La Chronique de Provence’ by Jean de Nostredame). This was a ravenous raiding sea-dragon with the body of an ox! Sea beef! The late-Fifteenth Century Order of the Knights of the Tarasque, initiated by the King of Languedoc, ensured the correct observance of this beef-bodied marine monster. It appears on the civic shield of Tarascon, a  riverport of the Rhone near to its mouth on the Mediterranean Sea.

(Also see  Quatrain I 29 in the article ‘2012 NOSTRADAMUS’)

Perhaps there is also the annual “Bous a la Mar/Bulls into the Sea” fest at Denia on the Costa Blanca in Spain to consider where bulls will jump into the sea while chasing humans but I’ll settle for the Tarasque.

And there will be a new incursion made via the coasts, leaping up to Castulum (Cazlona on the navigable Guadalquivir River in Andalusia) delivering it from the first recapturing of it by the Mohammedans.

Andalusia is geostrategic being bordered to the North by the Sierra Morena and to the South by the entry region from the Atlantic ocean to the Mediterranean. Its name is Arabic.  Bull-fighting and the flamenco are Andalusian in origin (as was Pablo Picasso). Andalusia was the heartland of the Medeval Muslim Iberian Peninsula.

Castulum/Caslova shuttlecocked between Roman and Carthaginian powerplays and later the whole region rocked back-and-forth between Christian and Muslim dominance. Michel Nostredame seems to be throwing all this history of counter-conflicts together into just one sentence or else is describing some engagement up-river at Castulum about which little or nothing is known otherwise.

Castulum just might be some local derivation from the Latin castellum; a rectangular small fortress such as atthe endof an aqueduct. Montpelier comes to mind. The prefix ‘castrum’ looks similar and was probably derived from the name Ceasar. Originally Bayonne, just above the border with Spain, was a Roman military site or castrum. The words ‘castellum’ and ‘castrum’ may have become interchangeable in conversation.

And their besiegings will not be vain, and to the place that Abraham made his dwelling in former times, they will (likewise) be attacked by people who will have the Jovialists in veneration.

And the afore-mentioned city of Achem will be encircled and attacked on all sides by hugely powerful foreign armed forces. Its sea forces will be enfeebled by the Westerners.

Islamic Achem was an open-plan city in a kingdom of North West Sumatra that was strong enough in the Eighteenth Century to oust the Portuguese. The similarly named Achmim (a.k.a. Chemmis, it produced cotton) was a large town on the Nile in Upper Egypt, once very splendid. The Free Imperial City of Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) was devastated by both the besieging US Army and the hunted Waffen SS in 1944. This ‘elite’ force (several hundred were stationed inside diabolical Dachau) was multinational, like the dread Sea People of the old Aegean. Modern-day Acre, a small port in Israel, was also Akre or Ake or several variants starting Akk-. It was also once called Ptolemais.  Is Acchem by any chance a Michel de Nostredame portmanteau for Acre?

The people of Castulum were said to have been very pro-Roman before involuntarily changing their affections. There seem to be two separate places being referred to here as Abraham’s abode. It fits a little better to Achem than to Castulum. More confuscation? Or a tortuous link?

(also see Nostradamus Quatrain VIII 48 THE MOST ELUSIVE QUATRAIN OF ALLwhich considers ‘Castallon’)

And by this the powerful state will be made so desolate, and the largest cities will have become settlements,  and those who would enter in will be as if taken out at the vengeful cry of the anger of God.

And that sepulchre of so many great venerations over the space of a long time under the still clarity in the all-seeing eyes of the Heavens and of the Sun, beyond the Moon, will still exist. And this sanctified place will become amenable to new sentiments, accommodating and adapting to a menagerie of impious stuff. Oh! what a calamitous sorrow there will be during that time for those women engirthed (confined, pregnant): and this will be at the time of the principal Eastern leader, for the most part removed through the vanquishing by the Northerly regions (the Seven Stars) and the West, and put to death, destroyed, the remainder evasive, and his children by many women get imprisoned, and at that time the Prophecy of the King-Prophet will come true: Ut audiret gemitus compeditorum, ut solveret filios interemptorum (from a Psalm of Penitence used at Lent, “That he might hear the groans of those imprisoned, that he might release the children of the dead”), and a great oppression will be inflicted at that time upon the Princes and governors of the Kingdoms, the same being maritime and Eastern,that their languages areindistinguishable to greater (Western) society: the language of Latin and Arabic via Phoenician, and all these Eastern potentates will be driven to destruction, exterminated, not wholly by means of the Kings of the North,

The original Aquilon may have been Aquileia a most ancient city of Venetia, near an Alpine pass to Noricum, that was the mercantile and military  “bulwark” of the North of Italy throughout Roman times, giving the Aquileienses  the advantage of simple access to Roman routes across Non-Mediterranean Europe. The word ‘Aquilon’ slipped into OF as meaning the North Wind. One section of the monastery at St. Michaels Mount was named Aquilon and faces the North Sea. The term eventually came to mean the North or North-West of the World.

At one time or another, all peoples of Mediterranean Europe and North Africa have had some notion of a little known and unpredictable nation living to their North or Far North. Interestingly the Sino-Tibetan chronicles,  Indian-Iranian-German-Russian epic verses and Celtic-Scandinavian myths have all featured some special Northern place of long ago.

In OF, ‘alquiloie’ means alchemists although Charles A. Ward notated Aquilon as ‘Alquiloye = Aquilæ lex, law or rule of the Imperial Eagle’.The eagle is of the family ‘Aquilidés’.

also by the presence in this Earthly existence of those three in hidden association who desire deaths, and insidiously set pitfalls for one another, and the renewed Triumvirate lasts seven years, such that the fame of that particular grouping will make its testaments global, and will uphold the offerings to its credited saints and immaculate host: and this will be at the time of the Lords two in number of the Northerly Regions; victorious over those Eastern ones, as hereunto so great a noise will be made, the bellicose roaring all as aforementioned.

(A bellicose roar also features in Nostradamus Quatrain IV 28, see IV 28 & IV 33  NEPTUNE VEILED, ABBOTTABAD, 2nd MAY 2011)

The alarmed Easterners will be burned by those North-Westerly brothers already mentioned; brothers but not brothers.

Brothers with the same mother but different father or two out of the same league but with differing personality types? Celtic warriors were highly bonded with each other in battle, preceding this with intense warriorship rituals – as too the Spartans. Brothers-at-law or brothers-in-war?

And towards this end, Sire, that by this discourse I put these predictions well-nigh confusedly, and when it will be and the start thereto, for the time sequences that it follows, that it is by no means or not very well in conformity with the excellent: the which is somewhat by astronomic seeing, at other times by the holy scriptures, which can by no means fail,

Michel Nostredame deliberately confused all and yet here is a pure admission: he says that where his starry calculations were confounded by biblical accounts he has felt that he must go with the latter (or risk standing accused of impiety, possibly by foreign Inquisitions, as Holy Scripture cannot be wrong-footed) thereby creating some non-sequential , anti-chronologies in the text. The line of least resistance combines with a sense of personal survival? A wise caution?

That if I were to wish at each and every quatrain to put in the calculated time, I would rightway do so: but it would never be agreeable to all, the least so to the interpreters excepting this should happen Sire, that Your Majesty had vouchsafed me from the trappers ensnaring me.

Figuratively, ‘niateurs’ might suggest ‘snakes’ and ‘me mordre’ would then imply ‘biting me’, which could chime with ‘insidious’ in the earlier description of the three sects as OF ‘insidies’ can also mean ‘snake-like’. My earlier comments on the Epistle have already mentioned the obscure but apparent linkage between ‘natteurs’, ‘niateurs’ and ‘divinateurs’.

There follows a further tilt by Nostredame at a Bible chronography with a different set of figures than employed earlier, so tempting the reader to consider which set is intended de facto and which might contain concealed encyphering. The opening phrase may be a clue … or a red-herring …

By all faithful accounts, the years since the creation of the world, until the birth of Noah is 1,506 and since the birth of Noah until the perfected building of the ark, approaching the universal wash-out (global inundation), 600 years passed (whether given Solar or Lunar years, or of say an intermixing of the two)

Calendrically, it was the setting of a total number of months, by allocating a number of days to each month, that made a difference to the precise length of year to be used; for example, the ancient Lunar Mansions used 27.3 days for each of 13 months, so giving 354.9 days as the annual cycle and this happened to pull alongside the 354 day Jewish year (6 months x 29 days alternating with 6 x 30) that by the device of ‘1 day = 1 year’ also happens to describe a 12-orbits cycle of Saturn.

I hold to what the sacred scriptures held to the which gives us Solar years. And at the end of those 600 years, shall Noah enter the Ark to save his being from the deluge: and it was that flood upon the whole planet and it lasted between one and two months. And since the end of the flood until to the birth of Abraham, the number of years passing was 295. And since the birth of Abraham until the birth of Isaac, passed 100 years. And since Isaac until Jacob, 60 years. From the moment he entered Egypt until to the time he came out 130 years had passed. And since the entry of Jacob into Egypt until to the exodus, 430 years passed. And since the exodus until to the building of the Temple by Solomon in the fourth year of his reign, 480 or 420 years passed. And since the Temple was built until to Jesus Christ, following the computation in the religious writings, passeth 490 years.

And so by this calculation that I have made, it is in the region of 4,173 years and 8 months, more or less: In this time of Jesus Christ, discounting the initial proliferation of Jesus sects, and having reckoned and calculated for these present Prophecies, the whole according to the linking order of the chain which contains its revelation, all of it by Astronomical doctrines, and following my natural instinct, and after some time and in the given understanding down the ages that Saturn will take its turn between the 7thApril until the 15thAugust, Jupiter from the 14th June until 7th October, Mars from 17th April until 22nd June, Venus from 9th April until 22nd May, Mercury from the 3rd until the 24th February, as adduced.

After 1st June, until 24th as adduced, and from 25th September, until 16th October, Saturn in Capricorn, Jupiter in Aquarius, Mars in Scorpio, Venus in Pisces, Mercury in Capricorn for a month, Aquarius, and Pisces, the Moon in Aquarius the head of the Dragon in Libra: thetail in its opposite Sign in accord with a conjuction of Jupiter with Mercury with a quadrant aspect Mars to Mercury and the Dragon’s head will be with a conjuction of the Sun with Jupiter, that year will be peaceful without eclipse, but not in all, yet will be a commencement that contains what yet will last and starting in that year will be made greater persecution of the Christian Church, than ever was made in Africa, Oh! what a concept will come into being as the century turns:

Following persecutions, the Western Church of Rome more or less ceased to exist in North Africa.

hence the Roman membership will start to straighten themselves, and to sweep clean some dark corners, somewhat getting back their original clearness, yet not without great division and continual alterations.

After that Venice in great force and power will raise its wings so high, which is not to say surpassing the forces of ancient Rome. 

The Republica de Venesia, an ”Eastern city in the West” which had been granted autonomy from Byzantium,  exited history in 1797 due to Napoleon Bonaparte’s invasive forces. During Nostredame’s time this sea-based polity with its huge protective ‘moat’ had spread well inland, also seaward to control the East Adriatic coastlands by holding part of old Istria, Dalmatia, Albania, some of the Ionian-Aegean and the large island of Cyprus. This latter was lost although the land of Morea was later gained for the first quarter of the Eighteenth Century. There are different ways to value Venice. Some great acquisitions, such as art and sculpture, have long-lasting values whilst other resources are perishable or transient. Influence is a valuable commodity. Wealth in trade is accumulative. Generally Venice managed to stay independent and was most often friendly with other states, much like Thailand in more recent times,  and it grew remarkably rich from its trade partnerships  especially with the Byzantines.

And in these times the great veiled Bizantines ally with the Ligurians under the approval of the North-Westerly powers, bringing such pushing together that neither of the Cretans will be able to keep their faith with propriety. The crafts built by the ancient Martial powers will taste the salt waves of Neptune.

These crafts may be the oar-driven ships, used in Medeval close-quarter sea-battles both by and against the Byzantines. Or else ‘‘arcs’’ are ‘bows’. Long-bows, Greek and Etruscan-styled bows, selfs and composites, were all in use hundreds of years BC by the Angles, Huns and many other Barbarians, and the later European archers frequently crossed salt-water in support of campaigns at Constantinople, Asia Minor, North Africa and the Mediterranean  islands.

The sea-city of Venice and its important hinterland were strategically well-placed and of  an ever-increasing wealth and importance. They overcame brushes with the Franks and Genoans. The heritage established was a far-flung and effective diplomatic service, bought-into by many states at some time or another, although it has never rivalled Rome in any direct importance to the Mediterranean and Western European peoples. (There is also dark talk of the ‘‘Black Venetians’’, apparently absent aristocrats said to wield secretive controls over European institutions. Well, the longest-lasting banking cabal of all started hundreds of  years ago in Venice. It has even been suggested that the deep Venetian-Lombardian rivalrousness and antagonism to the Roman Empire evinced itself later through the City of London/the British Empire. It is possible to argue either empire as near-global in its way and in its day but the British John certainly outran the Roman reach.)

The Greek island-state of Crete was officially embraced or had been possessed by both the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) then becoming a piratical Muslim Emirate that was invaded by irked Byzantines until the francophile Venetian Republic acquired it, losing it on to the Ottoman Empire. ‘Cretenses’ or ‘Cretans’ could therefore be a subtle reference to Christianity and Islam existing virtually side-by-side.

Next comes a prophesy of something similar to Field-Marshall Tito’s Jugoslavia and subsequent ‘Balkanization’ and chiming with Iraq’s chaos after Saddam Hussein: 

In the Adriatic will be made great discord, such that what first will be united will then be separated, and there will approach some habitation that before has been and will again be a great city, covering the Pompotam (a river like the Tigris, Euphrates, Alwand, though possibly a catch-all expression for any major river such as the Danube or Rhone) and Mesopotamia (the river’s hinterland), in Europe at 45

The 45th Parallel North latitude runs through France (Lyons is at 45.75°N) and Italy (Milan, Turin, Venice). Treating it as 44-46° ensures inclusions from Slovenia, Serbia and Romania. The Serbian city of Belgrade marks the birthplace of Europe’s largest prehistoric culture, the Neolithic Vinčas. Romania’s bustling Bucharest was burned down by the Ottomans and briefly abandoned in the early Seventeenth Century.

The Battle of Brioca led to the arquebusier/small arms becoming dominant in warfare. It took place across Latitude 45°N –45.52 (see the Nostradamus Quatrain X 64)

Babylon is at Longitude 44°E

Rethinking this whole paragraph, the final remark “in Europe at 45” only starts to make solid sense if we presume that this activity in Europe is in addition to the previously mentioned activities rather than the location marker of them. Perhaps this paragraph refers to natural disasters, especially in Italy or France or Greece or even Turkey.

A way to understand this paragraph better may be to treat the parts as if separate, although occurring at around the same time:
“In the Adriatic will be made great discord, such that what first will be united will then be separated,”
perhaps a fault-line seismic disturbance of signicance for the region
“and there will approach some habitation that before has been and will again be a great city, covering the Pompotam and Mesopotamia,
an old-new great city across a major river is affected, plus
“in Europe at 45”
there will be further effects in Europe along Latitude 45°N.

and the others at 41,

Parallel 41 crosses the Med and the Adriatic touching Barcelona, Istanbul. Both New York’s Long Island and the Three Mile Island are at 41°NFort Calhoun Nebraska is at Latitude 41.5°N and has suffered nuclear cooling plant failure and flooding. (April 2012, plant now idled after ‘high safety significance fire’.) Cooper Nuclear Plant stands nearby. 41°N LaSalle County Nuclear Generating Station, 2006 site area emergency declared, tritium contamination recorded at nearby Braidwood Plant. 41°N Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, Oak Harbour, Ohio, June 2012,  join sprayed reactor coolant. At around 41°56N the Donald C. Cook nuclear power station leaked a figure between 1,386 and 2,000 gallons of generator and coolant oil into Lake Michigan in 2014. (The Great Lakes in total house 20-25% of all the freshwater on the planet.) Indiana Point Energy Center at 41°16 experienced a minor explosion, May 2015.

Rome, 41°55, has within it Vatican City to which Mussolini afforded its present sovereign status.

(see the Nostradamus Quatrain VI 97)

42 and 37.

Parallel 42N touches Andalusia (Sevilla), Italy, France and various countries in South Eastern Europe including Turkey (Sofia).

42°N, Byron Nuclear Generating Station, Rockvale, Illinois, USA, 2006 radioactive hydrogen (tritium) contaminated groundwater, 2007 escape of nitrogen inside building.

42°N, Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant, 2012 a Federal judge blocked Vermont State from closing the riverside plant (for reasons of nuclear safety, including tritium leakage, by 85% majority vote of the Vermont Senate in 2010).

A ‘nuclear event’ (a semi-official term) took place September 2011 at Latitude 42°N in Palisades Plant, South Haven, Michigan.

Of course the 37th Parallel North engirdles many places and covers large population clusters. It also links all of the Western Economic World together, i.e. the USA, Europe and Japan. As a matter of fact the stricken Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant is on latitude 37N as is the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant and also the Surry Virginia USA plant.

And in that time, and in such regions the infernal force will place into its encounter with the Church of Jesus Christ the power of adversaries to the law, which will be the second Antichrist, which will persecute the existing Church and its true Vicar,

It is unclear exactly what or who “the second Antichrist” might refer to here. The Centuries are said to yield three AC’s. The general belief among Nostradamusers is that Napoleon Bonaparte was the first, Adolf Hitler the second plus a nameless third, perhaps not European, who will appear in due course. The setting  exists but the theme is unproven. Perhaps we have only had one so far?

by means of the power of temporal rulers, who through inexperience will be seduced bythe professors of insanities who more than not cut more sharply than the sword.

The rise of national education over the past 100+ years has been accompanied by heavy distribution of certain ideas, sometimes at the behest of hugely resourced Foundations, and an under-critical acceptance of these strategem from certain mad doctors and professors made influential in the social and physical sciences. The list is long. Some sit alone writing powerful policy directives for worldwide movements, some create weapons capable of unimaginable destruction, others directly advise or even cajole Presidents: all have walked a mean mile along the path to mass murder.

The allotted reign of the Antichrist will last no longer than the proscribed period, close to the closure of the Age, the same for the other in the city of Plancus accompanied by the elect/elevated Modone Fulci, through Ferrare, supported by the  Adriatic Ligurians, under the grace of the great Trinacrie: Then the Gallic Ogmios, will pass the Mont Louis/Mount Joux accompanied by so great a number that the faraway Empire of his great law will have evinced itself and for that time and some time after the profuse bloody wounds of the Innocents will be dressed by the observers and alleviated a little: then by great inundations the memory of the things governed by such instruments will sustain an immeasurable loss, the same for the book knowledge:

Nostredame has managed to suggest a parallel text to me here; one of passing over by air of fighting fleets piloting by instruments (drones?) with observers on the ground treating the wounded. (The inheritor of the Knights Templar badge is the neutral Red Cross who were and are war observers and important message bearers as well as medics.) But evidence of this and all else will be removed by a mega-tsunami wave rendering knowledge-based existence ultimately futile.

(see VIII 16 in the articleX 96 ADALUNCATIF & VIII 16 FESULAN)

The term Antichrist comes from the Greek Christos* – annointed – plus a Greek prefix (which in itself requires careful use of Greek grammar) and is clearest as to what it does not mean. Surely not ‘unanointed’. Probably not ‘against’. Often taken as ‘in denial of’ it could well mean ‘equivalent to’. It seems the jury is still out over the plural meanings of  ‘Antichrist’.

*The elevated term ‘annointed’ with its rather prosaic meaning is the Greek word ‘christos’ that traditionally transliterates the Hebrew ‘moshiach’ or messiah. But the Greek for ‘crystal’ (kruos, kreus, krust) may also be a cousin of ‘christ’. After all, crystals propagate non-sexually and ‘crystal clarity’ could be a byword for the claimed effect of Jesus upon those who open up to Him.

Trinacrie again: the title ‘Trinacrie’ has several explanations, some more likely than others:

The semitic lines of Ishmael (Moslems) Esau (Christians) and Jacob (Jews). All from Abraham.

The Holy Trinity – reminiscent of the Triune God Jupiter-Juno-Minerva on the Capitoline in Rome but long before then the Greeks had the Olympian triad of Hades, Poseidon and Zeus each with one of the three Tritan weapons, the thunderbolt, the invisibility helmet and the trident.(There is a chiming here with the Rig Veda.) The Olympian trio were clearly sourced from three major gods of the creative Canaanites.

(see X 96in the articleX 96 ADALUNCATIF & VIII 16 FESULAN)

The Triangle, slang for the island of Sicily which has its West and South aspects on the Mediterranean Sea, its East at the Ionian Sea and its North to the Tyrrhenian Sea.

The ‘radioactivity trefoil’ used as the international symbol for radiation danger, since 1946.

In Astrology, the prefix ‘tri’ could suggest the ‘fiery trigon’ or the Triplicity. A trine is a harmonious aspect of three planets at 120° apart. A grand trine is formed by three planets of the same element that are in trine to each other.

A word extracted from the letters of the French words ‘antichrist’ and ‘antéchrist’?

Tripolis was created in 1770 near the ruins of three ancient Greek cities whilst Tricity on the Baltic Pomeranian is a Polishtrójmiasto’ (triple city). Acri is another name for the city of Acre in West Gallilee (renamed by French Crusaders who raised three buildings there).

Trinepos was a Roman genealogical term for sixth male in direct descent. The triregnum is the valuable papal crown bearing three royal diadems. The Three Emperor’s League of 1872 comprised Germany, Russia and the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. In 1882 Italy joined the Dual Alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary making it the Triple Alliance.

Plancus, a compatriot of Julius Caesar, founded Lyon in the newly-conquered territory of Gaul.

Modone is possibly a literary fiction that will yield up Madone or Démon, both being intermediaries between God and Mankind. ‘Fulci’ seems almost beyond deduction. Looking for ‘ful’ entails trawling OF from fau to faux to faulx and eventually ‘folle’ which could mean either madness or Queen. The verb tense ‘foule’ is from ‘fouler’, to crush. The suffix used here, ‘ci’, means ‘this’ or ‘hither’. Modone could be thought to be the historic fortress on the Peloponnese peninsula now called Methoni but I feel it very likely that ‘Fulci’ is a piece of Nostradamusing for the god Vulcan which would link it nicely with Modena through the superstitious Pliny the Elder who wrote that fire came out the soil at Modena but only on the days devoted to Vulcan. I guess that could well be it.

Mention of a place like ‘Ferrare’ , Ferrara near Modena, is possibly also representative of Italy as a whole, this being a widely suspected Nostradamus placing device, but that ploy reverses for ‘Adriatic Ligurians’. Ligurians were from the West Coast of Italy whereas the East Coast is on the Adriatic. Ligurians out of place; Venetians but not Venetians?

The Gallic Ogmion = Ogmios the Celtic version of Hercules. (A year after this Epistle’s publication saw Nostredame renamed Monstradamus by author ‘Hercules le François’.) 

Charles A. Ward had Mount Jovis as Barcelona, others have said it is the Saint-Bernard Pass. However, its two mentions in this text look much like a mistake for Mont Louis which is at least near the Pyrenees although Barcelona is not too far distant but the Saint-Bernard Pass (famous since the fearful Gallic invasion of Rome in 390BC) is up between Italy and Switzerland. In antiquity it was often called Mons Jovis, because of its temple to Jupiter, except by the French who called it Mont Joux.

who will be drawn from (or hails from) the North-Westerly regions by the divine will that works through an unwavering belief within shall bind Satan. And universal peace will be between all Mankind, and the Church of Jesus Christ will be delivered from all tribulation, much how the Azos-people would wish to mix gall inside honey as their pestilence charm:

A surprising event! The North-Westerner has simply willed Satan out of the game, miraculously, by lacking all doubt over the matter.

A-z-o-th is from the Arabic word al-za-uq (mercury) which became an A-to-Z type of symbol for totality or completion, for synthesis or pervasion. (Public discrimination today is getting synthesized out of existence by the pervasive media diet of crafted equal-yet-opposite exchanges.) ‘Azoth’ was a supposed supersolvent and an ideal cure-all renowned in alchemy, i.e. to be aspired to.

The phrase ‘gall inside honey’ sounds deeply ironic somehow. Superficially it suggests an embittered Christian Church subsumed within something sweeter while Satan sweats it out down below. But there are no more diabolical excuses available for humanity’s inhumanities, no hiding place under the Devil’s cloak, all Satan worship must fail and all Truth shall quickly out – so does this suggest that a hardpressed Church Christianity may now rest in peace?

and that will be close to the Seventh Earthly Millenium, that no more will the sanctuary of Jesus Christ be trodden by the infidels who will have come from the North-West as the world approacheth some great conflagration, how much (I wish) that by my calculations in my prophecies the course of the ages finds abode a lot further away than the passage of years during the Epistle dedicated to my son Cesar Nostradamus. Ay! It is rarely that what has been declared appears or otherwise dawns without some omen.

I’ve had to monkey-wrench more than usual here to make Michel Nostredame’s stabbing phrases turn a little more fluidly. He is making it clear that the Earth is to burn (the biblical purification of evil by conflagration) around the Seventh Millennium. But the dating of that event is hotly debated, even from contradictory clues that other Nostradamus researchers, namely Professor Brind d’Amour and the astrologer T.W.M. van Berkel, have espied within this Epistle.

Michel’s great hope was that inspired readers would change the course of history such that the final arrival point of the flow of time is much further away than this Epistle and the Preface suggest, i.e. his work is based on a ‘worst-case scenario’ and all is not fixed between now and the End Time, much like the variable human lifespan. It would indeed be exceptional if ever there were no warning sign by which humanity mightn’t foresee and seize the opportunity to forestall its coming fate.

Further here, O Sire, are compiled several great and marvellous advents much how those who come after will see it. And of the duration calculated Astrologically hereunto, reciprocal to the sacred books, the persecution of the Ecclesiastics will gain its origins through the power of the North-Westerly kings, united with the Orientals. And this persecution will last for eleven years – or a little less, for by that time the health of the main Northern king  will have failed – which covers the years in which will take place the unification of the North and South, that will persecute even more extremely over the space of three years these Church people, by the apostatic charm of one who will hold all power absolutely through the Military church, and those blessed God’s people the observers of the divine law, and all orders of religion, will be largely persecuted and afflicted, such that the blood of true Ecclesiastics shall swim everywhere, and one of these atrocious temporal Kings will be given such lauding by his adherents, that he will have more cleaving of human blood from the Ecclesiastical innocents, that there will be hardly any wine (monastic or communion) to be had. And to them the King will perpetrate  some forfeitures (confiscations or other sinful errors) unimaginable to the Church, coursing human blood through the public streets, from temples, as water from rainfall flows, and reddening by blood the nearest rivers, and by a further naval war will redden the sea, so that the report of one King will relate concerning him: Bellis rubuit naualibus aequor. (‘Naval battles bloomed the sea red.’)

Then in the same year and those following there comes into existence the most dreadful pestilence, and made most marvellous (more staggering) by the anterior famine, and such great tribulations that never such will have appeared since the original founding of the Christian Church, and all the Latine regions (made commendable) by the relics to be found residing in those countries otherwise of the Spanish.

Perhaps an early use of ‘Latine’ for the Spanish Conquest lands and peoples of Central and South America that had enabled HRE Charles V to claim an “Empire over which the Sun never sets”.

During that time the third Northern King hearing the complaints by his subjects about his foremost claim, will raise so large an army, and will cut past the detractions (the Catholic sin of revealing another’s faults to a third person) of those rearguards and grandfathers,  and who will remit the greatest part from his state, and the Vicar-General of the hat will enter his formerly perfect original state:

The first Pope of Roman Catholicism wore the fish-head hat of Mithra that had previously been worn by Emperor Constantine when he was the Pontiff of his beloved Mithraism; he handed this down to his newly-established Roman Christianity together with his other Mithraic regalia.

The French-Latin term ‘pristin(e)’ was around in the 1530’s and pertained to the earliest period in a particular section of history, even the most primitive of ancient times. The Latin source was ‘pristinus’ meaning ‘former, before’. It was not the equivalent of ‘cathari’ or ‘pure’ in Greek. However, the English adjective ‘pristine’ means the condition ‘none cleaner’ or else ‘perfect and unused’. Which did the author intend; top-class preservation, first-rate restoration or perfection? I’ve opted here for something of all three.

(becoming) rather distressed and then abandoned by all, and will turn around the Earthly inner sanctum (Sancta Sanctorum) destroyed by Paganism and the old and new Testaments will be thrown out, on the fire. Roughly-speaking, the Antichrist will be the  infernal prince anew through the latter faith shaking all the  Christian Realms, and also the  non-believers, for the space of 25 years, and there will be more grievances wars and battles, and there will be towns, cities, chateaux, and all other kinds of buildings fired, distressed, destroyed, with great effusion of the blood of virgins, married women and widows raped, suckling babes dashed against the town walls, squashed and crushed, and so many of these ills will be committed by the intermediaries of Satan, prince infernal, that almost the entire great global system will be demolished and distressed: and before all these aforementioned advents, otherwisely strange birds will be singing out on the air, “Huy huy”, and will be vanished after some time.

These unaccustomed varieties of bird might be our kites or balloons. Or whirlybirds. The sound ‘Huey-huey’ might be ‘yes, yes’ (a positive affirmation) or the sirens wail (a dreadful sound) or even the noise of swishing blades (much modified in ‘stealth’ helicopters). However, in French Medieval terms these would be piped bird-call imitations to attract real birds onto glue-smothered branches or else for falconry.

And after such times of lengthy duration, and almost at the return of a further reign of Saturn, it will be a golden existence. However, God the creator will say, hearing the affliction of his peoples, Satan will be put out and bound in the abyss of the Baratron (Christianity’s Hell) in the deep pit: and well then will commence a universal peace between God and Mankind, a universal peace, and (Satan) abides bound to that place for the space of a thousand years, and will turn with such great force, the Ecclesiastic power, and then slip unbound.

In biblical terms ‘a thousand years’ means 1,000 time units – hours, days, weeks, months – but not necessarily years. The unclear linkage between “such great force” and “the Ecclesiastic power” creates a dilemma that should not be glossed-over. We do not know exactly what was meant. Was an idle error inserted by some confused compositor’s inept assistant? Or will Satan forcefully overturn the Ecclesiastical apple cart recasting the Ecclesiastics as the jumped jailors of Satan? Or are the words deliberately or incidentally confused? Perhaps the Ecclesiastic power somehow IS Satan at that juncture. The reader’s choice depends to a degree upon how we interpret the term ‘Ecclesiastic’. Today there are about one million religions in the world. Does this mean the RC Church? Delimited to the Vatican staff? Or all the congregationalists of all the faiths everywhere? Including the monastics who seek enlightenment in a Christian setting (and sometimes conceal an aversion to the YVVH-Christ concept)? And what of others who like some Eastern masters are spiritually elevated without seeking any religious inclusion whatsoever and yet, like famous monks, have large and sometimes unbidden followings?

That all these figures are precisely arranged by the heavenly records for the visible celestial bodies, this is book-knowledge, by Saturn, Jupiter, and March, and the others conjunct, as being better aligned/suited to plan than we will otherwise be able to see with quadrants/quadrins, it having calculated and keyed the ones more tellingly with the others.

Ptolemy’s astrolabe was a quadrant, a practical instrument for measuring. Trigonometry employs quadrants and is positively astronomical-astrological. OF-Latin ‘quadrins’ were old coins, small like farthings, perhaps used by popular fortune-tellers of old – even to buy a kind of graph paper, the Arab’s ‘sine quadrant’ that predated Nostradamus by 500 years.

Further foreseeing, Oh! Most Serene King, that some ones of censorious pursuit would come up with pernickety objections which could oblige me to take my leisure and withdraw my nocturnal pen: 

The following is addressed to the Christian King. Michel states elsewhere that future changes might scandalize the French King in respect of his present cultural entrenchments. It’s true of us all, of course, as our native culture is the most difficult thing of all to shake-off and ‘future shock’ is ‘culture shock’.

Without, Oh! supreme king, a great number of future things are clear, in effect indicated correctly in brief, but I could not nor have I wanted to clarify them all in this letter that is directed to you; lest that we should have conveyed/you should have garnered certain facts too horrible, and to no great purpose thereby. Your humanity resides with Mankind, your mercy abides with God. Your qualities alone are worthy of the title Christian Regent; in you is that great authority that all religions deferentially confer dignity upon.

(‘Multa etiam, ô rex omnium potentissime, praeclara et sanè in breui ventura, sed omnia in hac tua epistola innectere non possumus, nec volumus: sed ad intelligenda quaedam facta horrida fata, pauca libanda sunt, quamuis tanta sit in omnes tua amplitudo et humanitas homines, deosque pietas, vt solus amplissimo et Christianissimo Regis nomine, et ad quem summa totius religionis auctoritas deferatur dignus esse videare.’)

According to some, the Latin words used up to here may, to an extent, be traced back to or even tracked by the Latin words used in individual quatrains in The Centuries. Similarly with the Letter to Cesar of 2-3 years earlier than this Epistle which now forms a complement to it. (There are single words here and there such as ‘pie’ and ‘natura’ that were adapted or downloaded from Latin without the necessity of first passing through OF and that could be overlooked easily when compiling such a list). Apparently, it has proved ultimately defeating to find any sequential logic between these word-sets and I feel that any other type of correlation may need such fiddling that it feels too obscure, favouring only that adept who has spent long hours upon them and will develop his or her own feel for scaling them – but then, that just might be the whole point of the Opera Nostradamus.

But this alone I beseech of you, Oh! King so clement; by your singular and prudent humanity as heretofore mentioned, to hear all that my courage aspires to tell you, and with my utmost application since that, Ay! out of obedience to Your Most Serene Majesty, my eyes got so close to your Solar splendour, such that the furthest extent of my work upon my self can neither reach nor summon up.

De Salon, ce 27. de Iuin, 1558.
Faciebat Michaël Nostradamus
Salonae Petrae Prouinciae

There are two deviating biblical chronologies in this Epistle and it has been suggested elsewhere that at least one of these – on its own or linked to the quatrains generally or else read together with the dedicated Preface to Cesar– encrypts some special clues. Actually the Koine Greek version of the Hebrew Bible uses a different chronology to the Hebrew text and I feel that Nostredame may be reflecting this in design if not in fact. Due to biblical discrepancies, historians have computed hundreds of such chronologies and even the Christian Fathers were aware of a discrepancy of several centuries between the Greek and Hebrew chronologies yet it did not seem to worry them anyway near as much then as it does us now.

By way of contrast/comparison, Berosus the Babylonian gave us this chronology: from the Creation to the Flood was 10 royal reigns of Babylon spanning 432,000 years and from there down to the Fourth Century BC comes an unclear length of time. Such reigns as he applies, with many more missing it seems, posit a figure well in excess of 35,000 years until we reach 747BC and here we meet the spans for Nabonassar, Nabopolassar, Nebuchadnezzar, Nabonidus, Cyrus and so on until arriving at the devastating era of Alexander the Great.

NOTE 2: It is not unusual for dates to appear in Nostradame’s texts that cannot be accounted for on face value. Here in the Epistle we encountered 1585 and 1606.  Similarly, in the first couplet of Nostradamus Quatrain VI 2 we read ‘the year 580’ and in the second couplet ‘the year 703’ with little else to explain them other than that 580 leads to a strange century and that 703 has its testament in the firmament. However, it does add that 1 to 5 of several kingdoms will change. A ‘kingdom’ may be a Lunar or Solar cycle, 19 or 28 years respectively, and the planets too, have mean cycles. But if we follow that keenly logical route we run the risk of searching blindly for a mathematical code that does not exist. Pareidolia by numbers.

NOTE 3: A most important link for us is with two particular quatrains in the Centuries. Despite the unsubstantiated statement by Michel that his prophecies extend to the year ‘3797’,  the Centuries quite incontrovertibly set out inQuatrain I 48 a method to calculate the final date for the End Time prophecies:

Vingt ans du regne de la lune passez, (which might indicate 1555)
Sept mil ans (a 7000 year run) autre tiendra sa monarche:
Quand le Soleil prendra ses jours lassez,
Lors accomplit & mine (act out) ma prophetie.

mine = signs made for mute understanding, “signes qu’un muet fait pour faire comprendre” (1580, ‘Essais’ by Montaigne)

Line 1, Line 2 and Line 4 seem gravely factual; 1555 is in Michel Nostredame’s own punctual lifetime whilst the duration of Mankind’s existence on Earth is 7-8,000 years (beyond the 7,000th being under a different ruler) and one part of a cycle of the Sun will locate the season of final destruction. Line 3 provides a clue to the latter but no clarifying information. It depends heavily upon what grand calculation was employed by Michel de Nostredame for these reigning dates of the Sun, the Moon and the Planets plus exactly what he meant by the Sun’s “weary days”.

By most accounts, it would seem to come early in this current calendar millennium which could make fuller understanding of this Epistle, and of much else in Nostradamus, a matter of extra urgency.

NOTE 4:  A major clue is then conveyed by Nostradamus Quatrain 1 25.

Louis Pasteur, d.1895, founded microbiology via a succession of famous medical discoveries. He is still publicly honoured world-wide by way of streets and institutes named after him and, in fact, each time our physicians wash their hands. (Thorough body washing was also advocated, against a Church protest, by Nostredame.)  Pasteur’s body is kept in a vault at the Institute Pasteur, Paris, which is heavily decorated with Byzantine mosaics in his honour as if it were the Vatican’s vaults. It’s easy to imagine why Michel de Nostredame, once badly rejected by medical university theoreticians who hardly ever encountered the sick, was enthused by his vision of Pasteur as Louis was a Medicine ‘outsider’ who could ‘see’ what the ‘insiders’ found invisible. (Also his first treatment for rabies was done somewhat illegally as he was not a licenced physician. He then wrote the “Traitement de la Rage” in 1886.)

This all fits to the end of the moon’s reign as indicated by Line 1 of Nostradamus Quatrain I 48 (Michel applied therein the popular ‘Moon’s reign’ calculation of 1535 to 1888)but the predicted dishonouring occurred exactly 100 years after the great man’s death when the New York Times published “Pasteur’s Deception” by a Mr. Geison stating, to a mixed reception, that Pasteur had fraudulently arrived upon his anthrax vaccine.

Here is my translation of the 1555 Bonhomme Lyon edition of Nostradamus Quatrain 1 25

Perdu, trouué, caché de si long siecle
Sera pasteur demi dieu honore,
Ains que la lune acheue son grand cycle
Par autres veux sera deshonoré.

The missing method discovered, its Earthly existence kept secret for so long,
Pasteurwill be honored as a demi-god:
Resultantly, at the time the Moon completes its great cycle
Through contrary wants he will be dishonored.

Line 1. ‘perdu’ means ‘the lost way’, ‘trouvé’ means discovered. As well as ‘century’ the OF ‘siecle’ meant ‘this Earthly existence’.

Line 3. Today ‘ains’ would mean anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens’ the French version of NSAID the drugs that, incidentally, are used on dogs as an analgesic. Its true meaning is less common, perhaps very literary, and sometimes used to indicate comparative conditions such as age and extent. The more usual ‘ainsi’ would mean ‘as a result, in this manner, in that way’ or ‘let’s put it this way’.

Line 4. ‘veux’ are wants: wants are feelings and feelings such as antagonism or jealousy can have negative consequences.

This fixes 1995 as “the time the Moon completes its great cycle” and that may be the main purpose of the verse.

If, as I sometimes wonder, Nostredame felt that the greater cycle of the Sun should reflect and enlarge on its annual phases and attributes then might we now, in figurative terms, be on that early steep path of the struggling young Sun daily defeating darkness? Writ large?

(The Galactic alignment is once every 26,000 years or so and may be due some time soon – most will say 2012 but nobody can be sure exactly – this being the apparent alignment of the Sun at Winter solstice with the Galactic Equator.)

Note 5: The Benedictine “teacher of Germany” Rabanus Maurus (d.856) was Abbot of Fulda in Hesse and the Archbishop of Mainz/Mayence. He wrote famous overviews of things. After sampling some prophetic writings he wrote the following:

“Our principal doctors agree in announcing to us that towards the end of time one of the descendants of the kings of France shall reign over all the Roman Empire; and that he shall be the greatest of the Empire; and that he shall be the greatest of the French monarchs, and the last of his race”

“After having most happily governed his kingdom, he will go to Jerusalem, and depose on Mount Olive his sceptre and crown. This shall be the end and conclusion of the Roman and Christian Empire”

(The letters of the name Rabanus Maurus could yield Mabus. Is this most famous nomen from the NOSTRADAMUS QUATRAIN II 62 a codename for the last ever terrestrial King?)

   Nigel Raymond Offord © 2011

I have also uploaded a cut-down version without comments for a slightly easier reading experience. See the Article A GENTLY ABRIDGED VERSION OF THE EPISTLE TO THE KING