1568 Lyon Benoist Rigaud

L’an mil neuf cens nonante neuf sept mois,
Du ciel viendra un grand Roi deffraieur.
Resusciter le grand Roi d’Angolmois.
Avant apres que Mars regner par bon heur.

In the year Nineteen Hundred Ninety-Nine seven months,
From the sky will come a great ‘Roi deffraieur’.
Bringing back to life the great ‘Roi d’Angolmois’.
Before long, Mars (the god of war) to reign over all ‘by the rub of the green’.

’99 is always a year of transitional forebodings and these will surely get voiced at the end of every century. AD 999 had been a year of great consternation as the First Millennium drew to a close, panicking Christians. A millennium later AD 1999 saw a great uptake in interest in this Sixteenth Century Nostradamus Quatrain. It was a ‘proven fail’ only because it was widely misunderstood, including by the Nostradamus professionals.

Line 1. Either this is not actually the Gregorian calender year 1999 or this is a failed quatrain, right? Or is it a quatrain recognizable to only one reader – quite possibly the ‘king’ around End Time who was foreseen in the flesh by Michel Nostradame the visionary?

Line 2. The great King is a ‘deffrayeur’. But a defrayer of what? OF ‘deffraieur’ (from défraie, défraye) is a tricky word. Today, the verb ‘défrayer’ implies to spend prodigally. But it can also link-up with other words to produce amended meanings (‘défrayer la chronique’ is meeting the cost of powering the norm or something slow-to-change). Otherwise it could mean to abandon the main topic of discussion or even to bear the brunt of bad news. Molière wrote ‘défrayer la compagnie de bons mots’ in his play ‘Critique de l’École des femmes’, my translation being ‘to interpose witty comments to alleviate the mundanities of the guests’.

Line 3. ‘Angolmois’ is most likely ‘Angoumois/Angoulême’. In 1202 Isabella (mother of the English King Henry III) had inherited her father’s Duchy of Angoulême in France. The Renaissance King of France, Francis 1er, ruled from 1515-47 during which time he entered into an alliance with the Ottoman Emperor Suleiman the Great. He was of the Angoulême ‘House of Orléans’.  (Was he the prototype for the Nostradamus Quatrain III 94?)

Pépin first created Angoulême-Angoumois under Aquitaine rule although in the Hundred Years War it went to England for a while. Nostredame’s ‘Angolmois’ can be interpreted as ‘the Anglo times’ as well as being representive of Angoumois by all but one letter.

Are we being informed that this future King – a notable debt-dispenser or assuager of guilt – is either English or French or a combination of the two? A reincarnation or resemblance of a previous King (or else words like ‘grand Roi deffraieur/grand Roi d’Angolmois’ are kinds of textual concealment of an identity) who flies into Europe in the seventh month of 1999, hounded by troubles, straits and injuries both before and after this incoming flight?

Line 4. Either the planet-god Mars holds sway over imminent warfare or else Mars is masculine conduct in a particuar situation which is not revealed here. Otherwise, Mars is simply March 1999 and February-March-April had been fine for this ‘king’ with disaster striking later, leading to his flight in July. The 8-year cycle of Venus restarted around then. A highlight of that cycle is the dance between Venus and Mars. For a time these male and female icons appear to approach each other repeatedly but never quite touch and in this sense the Mars-Venus dance samples the stages of an unfulfilled courtship. OF ‘par bon heur’ equates to the English ‘by the rub of the green’ or ‘as chance would have it’.

For a customer to defray a restaurant bill is to pay in settlement so as to discharge that whole table’s liabilities, but for the restaurateur to defray the bill would be to waive that table’s debts by discharging them onto ‘the house account’. Alternatively, ‘defrais’ could mean to distract amusingly and that is quite salon-esque. OF ‘deffrayment’ appeared in the Thirteenth Century in the sense ‘to spend’ but by the Seventeenth Century (défraiement, défraîment, défrayement) meant to furnish or to accomodate.

The commonest text translations to be found of ‘deffraieur’ as ‘terrorizer’ are mistakenly from the OF ‘effrayeur, effriter’ (as in Prime Minister Thatcher’s parliamentary taunt “You’re frit!”) meaning troubled by agitation or tumult or else, from OF ‘frayeur’, a sudden violent scare. Strictly-speaking the English ‘terrifying’ is the OF ‘effroyable’. So ‘effroi’ is a sharp strong negative emotion whilst ‘deffray’ is a positive action that defrays others tensions over possible indebtedness and guilt.

The End Time quatrains in the Centuries and the relevant Epistle to the King are haunted by a presence out of the East who may or may not be of a royal line but is nevertheless to reign and yet, we are told, will require no title but victor. Perhaps he or she is alive now and can identify their self especially by this quatrain. Is it you?

 (Also see the Nostradamus Quatrains II 28 WHO IS THIS? and I 96 THIS IS HIM and III 94  FIVE HUNDRED YEARS  and the Article AU SUJET DE L’HOMME NICE)

For my second take on Nostradamus Quatrain X 72 see

(There is a further analysis of X 72 in the Article  A CANNON’S NOSTRADAMUS AND OTHER WORLD’S END GAME PLAYERS)