1568 Lyon Benoist Rigaud

Le chef de Londres par regne l’Americh,
L’isle d’Escosse tempiera par gellee:
Roy Reb auront vn si faux antechrist,
Que les mettra dans la meslee.

Another debatable Rigaud insertion or an important but difficult piece of prophecy? Everything in this quatrain is negotiable, nothing is fixed. Line 1, ‘The chief of London through the realm of Americh’ is missing a verb and the verb in Line 2 could sensibly relate to Scotland as its operator whilst the second couplet is complete by itself grammatically, so this is probably not the loping single sentence that the punctuation suggests.

(See the lower section The 7 Ts’ and sub-sectionTRUST’ on the HOME page)

All this has led to Line 1 having distinct interpretations based on whatever verb gets inserted. On this page are several of my own attempts with supporting facts and fancies.

First, a near-to-literal interpretation:

Through the realm of Americh the chief of London,
Measures Scotland frostily:
Reb Roy will have one so false Antichrist,
That shall put them into the midst.

Here’s a London in Washington opening shot:

Translation 2:
The leader at London is reigned over by the American chief,
Scotland will become frozen out:
The rebel kingdom will have so false an Antichrist,
Who/which will put them all into the grinder.

Line 1 here describes how post-millennium London (The City of Westminster-The Strand-The City of London) often seems to copy or fall in-line with the USA despite being officially part of Europe. At one low point, CNN and BBC simultaneously broadcast coverage of Prime Minister Blair being ‘piped ashore’ in front of President Bush (the only leader to wink an eye in her direction whilst publicly addressing the British Queen) on departing from the US White House, as befits a Rear Admiral of sorts.

Line 1 could also evoke a non-temporal, stand-alone musing, “Who rules London rules America rules London rules America” which would require quite a depth of future insight if proven true. In practice, should the political leader of Britain take orders from the same occulted governance as rules over America, this would create a world of real eliminations and false liquidations, of both forced and falsified foreclosures, of assassinations beyond social justice to correct, of caustic corporations ‘walking like a man’ and virtually robotose wars in perpetua. The liquidity-buoyancy supporting this invisible realm would inevitably run out and the system seize up; giving modern huns, goths, mongols and vandals ample new opportunities over time.

Line 2. Nostredame has foreseen Scotland becoming frozen apart, either from France its traditional friend/non-partner or from England its traditional enemy/partner or from other countries generally.

Calvinism  became the official state religion of Scotland in 1560, six years before Michel Nostradame died and eight years before this quatrain was published. Some of the most vicious attacks against Nostradamus were Calvinist. Both Catholics and Protestants routinely accused each other of being the antichrist for many bloody years.

It seems a False Christ may be given his break at a time when Scotland is isolated and London is enchained together with Washington. A disastrous result ensues.

Translation 3:

The grandest one of London during the American reign/during the soul-rich reign,
The Scots Isle tempered by frosting on the dew,
Roy Reb will be one so falsely called Antichrist,
That they will be put all together in the hunt.

Line 1, ‘ … l’Americh’ is a startling statement. Taken as a dire printer’s mistake we could allow ‘l’ame rich’ (the silent ‘e’ in ‘riche’ having been omitted) meaning rich in soul, rich in lifeblood or with a wealth of the spiritual principles of humankind. (Pierre Ronsard defined ‘ame’ as an ensemble of moral faculties.) Or could this be the only direct reference to America/USA in all of the works of Michel de Nostredame? The Americas had been officially ‘discovered’ before the Sixteenth Century and the French had named and re-named the North but not as America. Western France, however, has the geographical Armorican Heights or ‘Armorica’, this being another outside candidate for ‘l’Americh’.

Incidentally, OF ‘riche’ originally had the meaning powerful (Eleventh Century,‘Alexis’, éd. Christopher Storey) and OF ‘riche en’ would extend this to mean ‘possessing a quality thought of as precious’ (1553, Gerard’s Holy Bible). Generally, though, ‘riche’ and the old Occitan ‘ricz’ were used to indicate wealth, riches. (A Search for ‘Christopher Storey’ is always illuminating, by the way.)

King George III (d. 1820) entered his diary note for the Fourth of July 1776 as “Nothing of importance happened today”. He was a popular hero of the British and the colonial Loyalists but the most despised villain of the American revolutionaries. A tyrant, in fact. He was a Saxe-Coburg like his beloved descendant Queen Elizabeth II whose own public image is of great wealth and dignity and yet personal disappointments stoically survived with all of this underlined by a strong sense of duty and firm understanding of the common good and the commonwealth. So, soul-rich to a degree.

The French word ‘amerrir/amerrissage’ is first found in the Twentieth Century as an aviation term for a splashdown on water, ‘amer’ suggesting ‘to the sea’. This style of usage for ‘amer’ would render Line 1 as ‘London atop the Empire that rules the waves’.

Line 2, L’isle d’Escosse speaks of Scotland as an island, which it never was although there is an ancient European map that shows a watery straight line divide with England. Many Continental mainlanders were confused by the designation ‘British Isles’ and Nostredame’s ‘L’isle d’Escosse’ probably meant the Scots British Isle. I guess most countries offshore to Europe were thought of then as being sovereign islands. Later the Forth and Clyde Canal was built to connect the North Sea in the East of Scotland to the Atlantic Ocean in the West, effectively surrounding most of the Scottish land by water. It fell into disuse but was remade as part of the New Millennium celebrations.

OF ‘tempiera’ = OF ‘tempérer’, to temper, measure or moderate. (A ‘tempéré’ was one moderate or wise.) OF ‘gellee’ or ‘gelée’ = a gelatinous sauce OR a freezing effect on dew such as air-frosting.

Line 3, Roy Reb: The folk-hero outlaw (or Reb) was Scotsman Raibeart Ruadh or Robert Roy Macgregor (d.1734). He was appropriately wicked but markedly brave, a European legend in fact. OF ‘Antechrist’ = ‘Antichrist’. Whatever original meaning Saint John’s Gospel may have intended for it, the Church has specifically defined the Antichrist as a mystery personage with all the powers of Satan committed to countering Christ’s Church  at the End of Time. The only other reference to ‘l’antechrist’ in Nostradamus is in Quatrain VIII   77, first found in the 1568 Lyon edition by Benoist Rigaud. These quatrains as yet demonstrate no connectivity.

Line 4, OF ‘meslee’ or ‘mêlée’ = a mélange of things or animals or the midst of a battle, quarrel, fight or hunt. (But the similar-seeming OF ‘mesnée/menée’ meant a secret practice to insidiously achieve a goal.)

Translation 4:
The chief at London under assault by the king ruling the Americas,
Scotland with a measure of frosting,
The Rebel Lucifer’s Kingdom will have one so false, the Ante-Christ
Who will surely put them all down into the mix.

‘Escosse’ usually means Scotland but alternatively ‘escosse’ had the meaning ‘to write-off’ or ‘scotch’ or ‘scot-free’.

The words ‘tempiera par gellee’ taken literally could suggest time; any time that is not the brief Scottish Summer. But it could even be read as ‘into an ice age’. Or ‘temporarily addled’. Or at a stretch, ‘temperamentally enfeebled’. Whichever, it’s clear that Michel Nostredame felt negative about this period.

This quatrain is famous for its apparent mention of America. Our modern Medieval historians accept the old name Ame as being a version of either Amadeus or America. For example a Fourteenth Century Knight of the Ordine Supremo dela SS. Annunziata is recorded as being Ame/America, Conte de Geneve. In other words the European given name of Ame or Ama, in all its forms, predates the discoveries of Christopher Columbus (d.1506) and quite obviously the influence of Ame-rigo Vespucci (d.1512). The Nostradamus Centuries post-date all this.

Line 1. In Nostredame’s time, Spain was king of the Americas. The 1588 Spanish Armada was blown off-course and guttered most by the severe Northerly weather effects on the seas as they tumbled around Scotland towards Ireland. The Franco-Spanish Battle of Rocroi in 1643 then marked the end of the Spanish Golden Age and coincided with the opening of the Portuguse Rebellion. For this interpretation, Line 1 has the verb ‘assault’ embedded and describes the English King under attack by the ruler of America (the Spanish colonies) therefore the Spanish Armada. ‘Roy Reb’ becomes the defeat at Rocroi or the opening Rebellion in Portugal, at that time a resource-intensive holding of Spain, that would run until Portuguese sovereignty was restored. After the collapse of Spain, financial factors and explosive weaponry became recognized as the twin political facts of state and displaced the fabled messianic feature of kingship, which is where we are today. Despite their inclusion in exclusive clubs, European royalty are no longer entrusted with power by the financial elite who have equalled and overtaken them as paymasters to their palace politicians.

There are oblique references in the lines of this quatrain to Spanish failures at a time of their greatest strength and power, paid for by the America’s gold and silver and spent by HRE Charles V to prosecute wars around Europe in a way that marked a change in the ‘old thinking’ that perpetual war was an actual  necessity (being the constant means to rally focus and conform the energies of the people). Democratic capitalism and the pre-eminence of gunpowder were new and lasting successes, bankrupting kings and nobles and presaging an industrialization that would one day start in France with machine-made armaments production lines that had so impressed the visiting US President that he instigated imitative arms factories immediately he returned.

The problem in Line 3 is the alternating light and shade of rebel-angel Lucifer (this name is not a metaphor for evil anywhere in the Bible) glorying over the high points of his Material World. His human power-base pushes up one among them who may be called ‘ante-christ/anti-christ’. He or she is capable of acts of distilled deception, of pure-seeming words that lead to putrefactions. His great followers and their followers and all those who subjugate to them by compulsion or coercion or impulsion are pared for the mixer. The Apocalypse appears here without its typical ‘reap the whirlwind’ styled hyperbole. This is the vortex. Down, down, down into the mix.

Translation 5:
The leader at London reigns over the American chief,
The climate of the Scottish Isle grows cold,
The RebelKingdom will have so false an Antichrist,
That they are all put into a cauldron of confusion.

The phrase “Le chef de Londres par regne l’Americh” most probably indicates ‘during the reign over l’Americh by London’ and not ‘the reign of l’Americh over London’ although the latter is becoming apparent in some ways during this millennium.

In 1620, at a time when France, Spain and England were each hoping to develop a deeper grip on America, the Geneva Bible was taken over onboard the Mayflower by the ejected Pilgrim Fathers. It was based on Wycliffe’s English Bible of 1385, sometimes called “the Morning Star of the Reformation”. The States of America was set to evolve as an English-speaking Protestant nation before and after the American Revolution was executed by colonies of the British Crown. Today Spanish is becoming important as the second national language of the USA.

Reb Roy represents Rob Roy? It is a rarely recognized discussion today that the globally apparent ‘Scottish culture’ of bagpipes and swirling kilts may have been romanced out of the fertile imagination of Sir Walter Scott. In fact, just as sheep were imported into Britain from the Holy Lands in the Middle Ages so were many artifacts such as woven tartan plaids and skirling bagpipes. A disastrous split between Scotland and the remaindered United Kingdom is envisaged at a time when America-with-Britain still applies powerfully in the world. This immediately evokes thoughts of Israel, heavily protected by both governments.

A particular reading of ‘Roy Reb’ – and a worthy enough suggestion – is based on Rebecca, mother of Isaac who arguably started off a line of Jewish kings. This argument is not totally sustainable as Israel has worked hard at not becoming a kingdom for much of its history. Kings have simply not been a popular feature of Israel, only sometimes and usually having been glorified retrospectively by the Hebrew literature they inhabit. Whatever, the Israelites have not always been classifiable as Jews alone, so the available royal lines are clean broken through in today’s Israel although a new line may yet safely assert itself.

(Also, see the only other Antechrist Quatrain VIII 77)                                                     

                                                 Nigel Raymond Offord © 2012